# Objective Reasoning Formulas

## Types of Objective Reasoning :

Statements: A statement is a proposition or a claim that is either true or false. It presents a fact or an assertion about something. Statements are generally denoted by capital letters or letters of the alphabet.

Statements and Conclusions

Conclusions: A conclusion is a logical inference or a deduction drawn from one or more statements.
It represents a judgment or an outcome based on the given information or premises. Conclusions can be valid or invalid, depending on the logical consistency and coherence of the supporting statements.

Statements and Assumptions

Assumptions: Assumptions are underlying beliefs or premises that are taken for granted or considered to be true without explicit evidence or proof. Assumptions serve as foundations or starting points for constructing arguments and reasoning. They are not necessarily stated explicitly but are often implicit in the context or argument.

Statements and Arguments

An argument is considered strong or valid if the premises, if assumed to be true, logically support or imply the conclusion. Conversely, an argument is weak or invalid if the premises fail to adequately support the conclusion or if there are logical flaws in the reasoning. Analyzing arguments requires critical thinking skills to examine the validity of the reasoning, identify potential fallacies or weaknesses, and assess the strength of the evidence provided by the premises.

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## Examples on using Formulas for Objective Reasoning :

### Question 1.

Statement:
To give an elite education to their children, parents today are ready to pay any amount.

Conclusion:
I.  All parents are very rich these days
II. Parents are obsessed for perfect development of their children.

A. Only conclusion I follows
B. Only conclusion II follows
C. Either I or II follows
D.Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follows

#### Explanation:

The statement points that people are motivated towards providing their children an elite education. All parents are rich or not, it is not mentioned in the statement. Hence, only conclusion II follows and I does not.

### Question 2.

Statement:
Sales of ice cream increase in summer.

Assumptions:
(A) People like to eat more ice cream in summer.
(B) Increasing Temperature affects ice cream sales.

A. Assumption I is implicit
B. Assumption II is implicit
C. Both assumptions are implicit
D. None of them are Implicit

Explanation:

The statement suggests that ice cream sales increase in summer, which implies that people tend to eat more ice cream in summer, as suggested in assumption (A). Additionally, the statement indicates that temperature affects ice cream sales, which supports assumption (B).

### Question 3.

Read the following paragraph and choose the argument that best fits the author’s point of view:
“The use of technology in classrooms has become increasingly common in recent years. While some argue that it can be a distraction and detract from traditional teaching methods, others believe that it can enhance learning and engagement among students.”

A. Technology should not be used in classrooms
B. Technology can be distracting and should be limited in classrooms
C. Technology can enhance learning and engagement in classrooms

A. Argument A is Right.
B. Argument B is Right.
C. Argument C is Right.
D. Either B or A is Right.
E. None of them is right.

Explanation :

The paragraph presents two contrasting arguments regarding the use of technology in classrooms, but the author’s overall point of view is that technology can enhance learning and engagement among students.
Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

### Question 4:

Statement:
The company will introduce a new line of smartphones with advanced features.

Assumptions:
Customers are interested in smartphones with advanced features.
The company has the necessary resources to develop the new line of smartphones.

A) Only assumption 1 is implicit.
B) Only assumption 2 is implicit.
C) Both assumptions 1 and 2 are implicit.
D) Neither assumption 1 nor assumption 2 is implicit.

Explanation:

The statement discusses the company’s plan to introduce a new line of smartphones with advanced features. Implicitly, the success of this decision relies on the assumption that customers are interested in such advanced features (assumption 1). Additionally, the statement assumes that the company has the necessary resources to develop the new smartphones (assumption 2).

### Question 5:

Statement:
Regular exercise improves cognitive function in adults.

Assumptions:
Cognitive function can be enhanced through non-pharmacological interventions.
Adults are willing to engage in regular exercise.

A) Only assumption 1 is implicit.
B) Only assumption 2 is implicit.
C) Both assumptions 1 and 2 are implicit.
D) Neither assumption 1 nor assumption 2 is implicit.

Explanation:

The statement suggests a correlation between regular exercise and improved cognitive function in adults. Assumption 1 is implicit because it assumes that cognitive function can indeed be improved through non-pharmacological interventions, such as exercise. Assumption 2 is implicit because the statement assumes that adults are willing to engage in regular exercise in order to improve their cognitive function.

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