Quiz 1

Question 1

Time: 00:00:00
"Some men are definitely intelligent, others are definitely not intelligent, but of intermediate men, we should say, 'intelligent'? Yes, I think, so or no, I shouldn't be inclined to call him intelligent."

Which of the following reflects the intention of the writer well?

 

To call men intelligent who are not strikingly so must be to use the concept with undue imprecision  

To call men intelligent who are not strikingly so must be to use the concept with undue imprecision  

Every empirical concept has a degree of vagueness  

Every empirical concept has a degree of vagueness  

Calling someone intelligent or not depends upon one's whim  

Calling someone intelligent or not depends upon one's whim  

There is no need to be as indecisive as the writer of the above

There is no need to be as indecisive as the writer of the above

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Question 2

Time: 00:00:00
A highly cohesive work group is a prerequisite for high team performance. Sociologists point out that the association between success and group cohesion owes to the support individual team members give to one another and their acceptance of the group's activities and goals.

Each of the following, if true, either supports or cannot weaken the sociologists' assumption about the relationship between success and cohesion EXCEPT

A group of Japanese researchers found that the successful work teams were led by dominant leaders  

A group of Japanese researchers found that the successful work teams were led by dominant leaders  

University researchers found that there was a significant correlation between team productivity and the extent to which team members understood and complied with the group's objectives  

University researchers found that there was a significant correlation between team productivity and the extent to which team members understood and complied with the group's objectives  

American researchers found that successful team members tended to rate their fellow members more favourably  

American researchers found that successful team members tended to rate their fellow members more favourably  

Industrial Psychologists of UK found that work groups who tended to participate in after-hours social activities were more productive

Industrial Psychologists of UK found that work groups who tended to participate in after-hours social activities were more productive

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Question 3

Time: 00:00:00
Offshore oil-drilling operations involve an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently involves an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. So, if we are to lessen the risk of an oil spill without reducing our oil usage, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, seriously weakens the argument above?

Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.  

Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.  

Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.  

Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.  

The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be reduced by careful management.  

The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be reduced by careful management.  

Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.

Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.

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Question 4

Time: 00:00:00
Alan: In the last 15 years, most of the criminals who were convicted of theft or murder were from the lower income classes and had not completed high school. Therefore, the government has to spend more money on reducing poverty and increase funding to education. Because terrorism is the most severe of all crimes, such measures would bring down overall crime rate and reduce threat from terrorism.

Dylan: A study that was conducted in a country known to produce a number of terrorists showed that on average the terrorists were better educated than the overall population and that they did not necessarily come from lower income classes. This is probably because crimes such as theft are committed for personal gain while terrorism is for political or religious gain.

Which of the following best describes Dylan's response to Alan?

Dylan changes the direction of the argument entirely by discussing the scenario in a different country  

Dylan changes the direction of the argument entirely by discussing the scenario in a different country  

Dylan partially agrees with Alan's reasoning but refutes his recommendation to the government  

Dylan partially agrees with Alan's reasoning but refutes his recommendation to the government  

Dylan converts a causal argument made by Alan into a generalization applicable universally  

Dylan converts a causal argument made by Alan into a generalization applicable universally  

Dylan challenges Alan's reasoning by explaining why two situations that Alan perceives as similar are not  

Dylan challenges Alan's reasoning by explaining why two situations that Alan perceives as similar are not  

While Alan arrives at a conclusion by drawing an analogy, Dylan arrives at the same conclusion by refuting the analogy

While Alan arrives at a conclusion by drawing an analogy, Dylan arrives at the same conclusion by refuting the analogy

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Question 5

Time: 00:00:00
In contrast to the earlier predictions, demand for sugarcane has not risen in recent years, yet, even though production amounts and price have also been stable during the last 3 years. Last year, sugarcane growers increased their profits by more than 10 percent over the previous year’s level.

Any of the following statements, if true, about last year, helps explain the rise in profits EXCEPT:

Many sugar factories that are large consumers of sugarcane increase their production of sugarcane-based ethanol, yet their overall consumption of sugarcane decreased.  

Many sugar factories that are large consumers of sugarcane increase their production of sugarcane-based ethanol, yet their overall consumption of sugarcane decreased.  

Rainfall in sugarcane-growing regions was higher than it had been during previous year, allowing the growers to save money on expensive artificial irrigation.  

Rainfall in sugarcane-growing regions was higher than it had been during previous year, allowing the growers to save money on expensive artificial irrigation.  

Sugarcane growers have saved money on wages by switching from paying laborers a daily wage to paying them by the amount harvested.  

Sugarcane growers have saved money on wages by switching from paying laborers a daily wage to paying them by the amount harvested.  

Many small sugarcane growers joined together to form an association of sugarcane producers and began to buy supplies at low group rates.

Many small sugarcane growers joined together to form an association of sugarcane producers and began to buy supplies at low group rates.

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Question 6

Time: 00:00:00
Read the following passage below and answer the questions that follow on the basis of what is stated/ implied in that passage.

A microwave oven is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. Microwave ovens have revolutionized cooking since their use became widespread in the 1970s.

Cooking food with microwaves was discovered by Percy Spencer while building magnetrons for radar sets at Raytheon. He was working on an active radar set when he noticed a strange sensation and saw that a peanut candy bar he had in his pocket started to melt. Although he was not the first to notice this phenomenon, as the holder of 120 patents, Spencer was no stranger to discovery and experiment and realized what was happening. The radar had melted his candy bar with microwaves. The first food to be deliberately cooked with microwaves was popcorn, and the second was an egg (which exploded in the face of one of the experimenters). In North America, microwave popcorn is now one of the most commonly cooked items in microwave ovens, virtually to the exclusion of other home cooking methods such as hot air and oil popping. Most microwaves sold in North America today have a specific “popcorn button” which is solely used to cook premeasured packages of popcorn, ostensibly to make it easier for consumers to microwave popcorn without worrying about burning it or leaving a lot of kernels unpopped. The standard time for the “popcorn” setting on most microwaves is about three minutes.

On 8 October 1945 Raytheon filed a patent for Spencer’s microwave cooking process and in 1947; the company built the first microwave oven, the Radarange. It was almost 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and weighed 750 pounds (340 kg). It was water-cooled and produced 3000 watts, about three times the amount of radiation produced by microwave ovens today. An early commercial model introduced in 1954 generated 1600 watts and sold for $2,000 to $3,000. Raytheon licensed its technology to the Tappan Stove company in 1952. They tried to market a large, 220 volt, wall unit as a home microwave oven in 1955 for a price of $1,295, but it did not sell well. In 1965 Raytheon acquired Amana, which introduced the first popular home model, the countertop Radarange in 1967 at a price point of $495.

In the 1960s, Litton bought Studebaker’s Franklin Manufacturing assets, which had been manufacturing magnetrons and building and selling microwave ovens similar to the Radarange. Litton then developed a new configuration of the microwave, the short, wide shape that is now common. The magnetron feed was also unique. This resulted in an oven that could survive a no-load condition indefinitely. The new oven was shown at a trade show in Chicago and helped begin a rapid growth of the market for home microwave ovens. Sales figures of 40,000 units for the US industry in 1970 grew to one million by 1975. Market penetration in Japan, which had learned to build less expensive units by re-engineering a cheaper magnetron, was more rapid.

A number of other companies joined in the market, and for a time most systems were built by defence contractors, who were the most familiar with the magnetron. Litton was particularly well known in the restaurant business. By the late 1970s, the technology had improved to the point where prices were falling rapidly. Formerly found only in large industrial applications, “microwaves” were increasingly becoming a standard fixture of most kitchens. The rapidly falling price of microprocessors also helped by adding electronic controls to make the ovens easier to use. By the late 1980s, they were almost universal, and current estimates hold that nearly 95% of American households have a microwave.

A microwave oven works by passing microwave radiation, usually at a frequency of 2450 MHz (a wavelength of 12.24 cm), through the food. Water, fat, and sugar molecules in the food absorb energy from the microwave beam in a process called dielectric heating. Most molecules are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other, and therefore vibrate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field induced by the microwave beam. This molecular movement creates heat. Microwave heating is most efficient on liquid water, and much less so on fats, sugars, and frozen water. Microwave heating is sometimes incorrectly explained as the resonance of water molecules, which only occurs at much higher frequencies, in the tens of gigahertz.

Most microwave ovens allow the user to choose between several power levels, including one or more defrosting levels. In most ovens, however, there is no change in the intensity of the microwave radiation; instead, the magnetron is turned on and off in cycles of several seconds at a time. This can actually be observed when microwaving airy foods like Krembos (An Israeli confection): it blows up during heating phases, while it deflates when the magnetron is turned off.

The cooking chamber itself is a Faraday cage enclosure which prevents the microwaves from escaping into the environment. The oven door is usually a glass panel for easy viewing but has a layer of conductive mesh to maintain the shielding. Because the size of the perforations in the mesh is much less than the wavelength of 12 cm, the microwave radiation can not pass through the door, while visible light (with a much shorter wavelength) can.

Professional chefs generally find microwave ovens to be of limited usefulness. On the other hand, people who are lacking in free time, or not comfortable with their cooking skills, can use microwave ovens to reheat stored food (including commercially available pre-cooked frozen dishes) in only a few minutes.

The central theme of the passage is:

The Technique of Microwave Cooking.  

The Technique of Microwave Cooking.  

Microwave Technology in Ovens.  

Microwave Technology in Ovens.  

Commercial Microwave Ovens and its Uses.  

Commercial Microwave Ovens and its Uses.  

The Discovery, Development, and Uses of Microwave Ovens.

The Discovery, Development, and Uses of Microwave Ovens.

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Question 7

Time: 00:00:00
According to the passage, it can be inferred that:

the microwave revolution became widespread in the 1970s.  

the microwave revolution became widespread in the 1970s.  

the microwave technique of cooking was more of an ‘accidental discovery’.  

the microwave technique of cooking was more of an ‘accidental discovery’.  

Spencer holds the highest number of technology patents.  

Spencer holds the highest number of technology patents.  

popcorn is the most popular snack in America.

popcorn is the most popular snack in America.

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Question 8

Time: 00:00:00
According to the passage:

 

In most ovens, the intensity of the microwave radiation cannot be altered.  

In most ovens, the intensity of the microwave radiation cannot be altered.  

Fats and sugars are best cooked by microwave ovens.  

Fats and sugars are best cooked by microwave ovens.  

Microwave heating is the vibration of water molecules.  

Microwave heating is the vibration of water molecules.  

None of these

None of these

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Question 9

Time: 00:00:00
According to the passage:

 

 

Amana’s counter top Radarange priced at $495 was the most popular model.  

Amana’s counter top Radarange priced at $495 was the most popular model.  

hot air and oil popping methods of cooking popcorn is still used.  

hot air and oil popping methods of cooking popcorn is still used.  

microwave ovens were fitted with easy-to-use electronic controls due to the availability of cheaper microprocessors.  

microwave ovens were fitted with easy-to-use electronic controls due to the availability of cheaper microprocessors.  

Japan manufactures the highest number of microwave ovens.

Japan manufactures the highest number of microwave ovens.

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Question 10

Time: 00:00:00
Litton’s new microwave oven:

 

resembled the one that is used commonly now.  

resembled the one that is used commonly now.  

had a unique magnetron feed.  

had a unique magnetron feed.  

could work on the no-load condition indefinitely.  

could work on the no-load condition indefinitely.  

All of the above.

All of the above.

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