Wipro Reading Comprehension Quiz-4

Question 1

Time: 00:00:00
Direction for Question 1- 5: Read the passage and answer the questions as directed:

The international community has made progress toward preparing for and mitigating the impacts of pandemics. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic and growing concerns about the threat posed by avian influenza led many countries to devise pandemic plans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2005). Delayed reporting of early SARS cases also led the World Health Assembly to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) to compel all World Health Organization member states to meet specific standards for detecting, reporting on, and responding to outbreaks (WHO 2005). The framework put into place by the updated IHR contributed to a more coordinated global response during the 2009 influenza pandemic (Katz 2009). International donors also have begun to invest in improving preparedness through refined standards and funding for building health capacity (Wolicki and others 2016).

Despite these improvements, significant gaps and challenges exist in global pandemic preparedness. Progress toward meeting the IHR has been uneven, and many countries have been unable to meet basic requirements for compliance (Fischer and Katz 2013; WHO 2014). Multiple outbreaks, notably the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic, have exposed gaps related to the timely detection of disease, availability of basic care, tracing of contacts, quarantine and isolation procedures, and preparedness outside the health sector, including global coordination and response mobilization (Moon and others 2015; Pathmanathan and others 2014). These gaps are especially evident in resource-limited settings and have posed challenges during relatively localized epidemics, with dire implications for what may happen during a full-fledged global pandemic.

Which influenza caused a havoc among the people during the 2003 SARS pandemic?

Katz

Katz

Avian

Avian

African Ebola

African Ebola

Wolicki

Wolicki

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Question 2

Time: 00:00:00
The international community has made progress toward preparing for and mitigating the impacts of pandemics. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic and growing concerns about the threat posed by avian influenza led many countries to devise pandemic plans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2005). Delayed reporting of early SARS cases also led the World Health Assembly to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) to compel all World Health Organization member states to meet specific standards for detecting, reporting on, and responding to outbreaks (WHO 2005). The framework put into place by the updated IHR contributed to a more coordinated global response during the 2009 influenza pandemic (Katz 2009). International donors also have begun to invest in improving preparedness through refined standards and funding for building health capacity (Wolicki and others 2016).

Despite these improvements, significant gaps and challenges exist in global pandemic preparedness. Progress toward meeting the IHR has been uneven, and many countries have been unable to meet basic requirements for compliance (Fischer and Katz 2013; WHO 2014). Multiple outbreaks, notably the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic, have exposed gaps related to the timely detection of disease, availability of basic care, tracing of contacts, quarantine and isolation procedures, and preparedness outside the health sector, including global coordination and response mobilization (Moon and others 2015; Pathmanathan and others 2014). These gaps are especially evident in resource-limited settings and have posed challenges during relatively localized epidemics, with dire implications for what may happen during a full-fledged global pandemic.

What was the sequence of work that the World Health Assembly compelled all WHO members to follow?

detecting, reporting, treating and responding to outbreaks,

detecting, reporting, treating and responding to outbreaks,

responding to outbreaks, detecting, reporting.

responding to outbreaks, detecting, reporting.

reporting on, detecting, responding to outbreaks

reporting on, detecting, responding to outbreaks

Detecting, reporting on, responding to outbreaks

Detecting, reporting on, responding to outbreaks

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Question 3

Time: 00:00:00
The international community has made progress toward preparing for and mitigating the impacts of pandemics. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic and growing concerns about the threat posed by avian influenza led many countries to devise pandemic plans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2005). Delayed reporting of early SARS cases also led the World Health Assembly to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) to compel all World Health Organization member states to meet specific standards for detecting, reporting on, and responding to outbreaks (WHO 2005). The framework put into place by the updated IHR contributed to a more coordinated global response during the 2009 influenza pandemic (Katz 2009). International donors also have begun to invest in improving preparedness through refined standards and funding for building health capacity (Wolicki and others 2016).

Despite these improvements, significant gaps and challenges exist in global pandemic preparedness. Progress toward meeting the IHR has been uneven, and many countries have been unable to meet basic requirements for compliance (Fischer and Katz 2013; WHO 2014). Multiple outbreaks, notably the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic, have exposed gaps related to the timely detection of disease, availability of basic care, tracing of contacts, quarantine and isolation procedures, and preparedness outside the health sector, including global coordination and response mobilization (Moon and others 2015; Pathmanathan and others 2014). These gaps are especially evident in resource-limited settings and have posed challenges during relatively localized epidemics, with dire implications for what may happen during a full-fledged global pandemic.

What is the underlying conclusion of the passage?

Global pandemics and social gaps are both the cause and effect of each other.

Global pandemics and social gaps are both the cause and effect of each other.

Global pandemics happen because of society inaccuracy

Global pandemics happen because of society inaccuracy

The world leaders and Nations do not pay proper attention to the pandemic situations which leads to a greater outbreak.

The world leaders and Nations do not pay proper attention to the pandemic situations which leads to a greater outbreak.

None of these.

None of these.

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Question 4

Time: 00:00:00
The international community has made progress toward preparing for and mitigating the impacts of pandemics. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic and growing concerns about the threat posed by avian influenza led many countries to devise pandemic plans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2005). Delayed reporting of early SARS cases also led the World Health Assembly to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) to compel all World Health Organization member states to meet specific standards for detecting, reporting on, and responding to outbreaks (WHO 2005). The framework put into place by the updated IHR contributed to a more coordinated global response during the 2009 influenza pandemic (Katz 2009). International donors also have begun to invest in improving preparedness through refined standards and funding for building health capacity (Wolicki and others 2016).

Despite these improvements, significant gaps and challenges exist in global pandemic preparedness. Progress toward meeting the IHR has been uneven, and many countries have been unable to meet basic requirements for compliance (Fischer and Katz 2013; WHO 2014). Multiple outbreaks, notably the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic, have exposed gaps related to the timely detection of disease, availability of basic care, tracing of contacts, quarantine and isolation procedures, and preparedness outside the health sector, including global coordination and response mobilization (Moon and others 2015; Pathmanathan and others 2014). These gaps are especially evident in resource-limited settings and have posed challenges during relatively localized epidemics, with dire implications for what may happen during a full-fledged global pandemic.

Which of the following can be a stated evidences of gaps in the societal climate?

quarantine and isolation procedures

quarantine and isolation procedures

preparedness inside the health sector

preparedness inside the health sector

unavailability of basic care

unavailability of basic care

All of these

All of these

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Question 5

Time: 00:00:00
The international community has made progress toward preparing for and mitigating the impacts of pandemics. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic and growing concerns about the threat posed by avian influenza led many countries to devise pandemic plans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2005). Delayed reporting of early SARS cases also led the World Health Assembly to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) to compel all World Health Organization member states to meet specific standards for detecting, reporting on, and responding to outbreaks (WHO 2005). The framework put into place by the updated IHR contributed to a more coordinated global response during the 2009 influenza pandemic (Katz 2009). International donors also have begun to invest in improving preparedness through refined standards and funding for building health capacity (Wolicki and others 2016).

Despite these improvements, significant gaps and challenges exist in global pandemic preparedness. Progress toward meeting the IHR has been uneven, and many countries have been unable to meet basic requirements for compliance (Fischer and Katz 2013; WHO 2014). Multiple outbreaks, notably the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic, have exposed gaps related to the timely detection of disease, availability of basic care, tracing of contacts, quarantine and isolation procedures, and preparedness outside the health sector, including global coordination and response mobilization (Moon and others 2015; Pathmanathan and others 2014). These gaps are especially evident in resource-limited settings and have posed challenges during relatively localized epidemics, with dire implications for what may happen during a full-fledged global pandemic.

Choose a word from the following that has an opposite meaning to the word MITIGATE

Mollify

Mollify

Assuage

Assuage

Extentuate

Extentuate

Aggravate

Aggravate

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Question 6

Time: 00:00:00
Direction for Question 6 to 10: Read the passage given below and answer the following questions as directed-

Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. The first viroid to be identified and characterized was Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Potato spindle tuber disease was described in the early 1920s in Irish Cobbler potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in North America by Martin, who suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious virus. Shultz and Folsom investigated the disease and found that it was present in the tuber and could be spread mechanically in the field by leaf damage, tuber and stem grafts, with some evidence of insect transmission by aphids. Symptoms of the disease were characterized by stunting of the plants and elongated tubers; hence the disease was named ‘spindle tuber’. Although the causal agent was initially described as the potato spindle tuber ‘virus’, it was later found not to be a conventional virus, with a nucleic acid encapsidated by a viral protein, but a small, naked RNA molecule. Diener credited with the discovery of this novel pathogen, advanced the concept of viroids and proposed the term ‘viroid’ to denote this new class of subviral pathogens. Similar observations of infectious, low-molecular weight nucleic acids were reported as the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease and chrysanthemum stunt disease, and confirmed the viroid concept proposed by Diener.


Since the discovery of viroids, many plant diseases of considerable economic importance have been shown to be caused by viroids, for example PSTVd in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in chrysanthemum, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in citrus, Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in coconut palm, and Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) in avocado, among others. Viroids are restricted to higher plants and their hosts include monocots and dicots, herbaceous and woody plants, agronomic and ornamental plants. Viroids and viroid diseases are distributed globally, and their distribution may reflect exchange of infected germplasm and transmission through seeds.


According to the passage, how can the disease Viroids spread mechanically into the field?

Leaf grafts

Leaf grafts

Stem damage

Stem damage

insect transmission by aphids

insect transmission by aphids

None of these

None of these

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Question 7

Time: 00:00:00

Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. The first viroid to be identified and characterized was Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Potato spindle tuber disease was described in the early 1920s in Irish Cobbler potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in North America by Martin, who suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious virus. Shultz and Folsom investigated the disease and found that it was present in the tuber and could be spread mechanically in the field by leaf damage, tuber and stem grafts, with some evidence of insect transmission by aphids. Symptoms of the disease were characterized by stunting of the plants and elongated tubers; hence the disease was named ‘spindle tuber’. Although the causal agent was initially described as the potato spindle tuber ‘virus’, it was later found not to be a conventional virus, with a nucleic acid encapsidated by a viral protein, but a small, naked RNA molecule. Diener credited with the discovery of this novel pathogen, advanced the concept of viroids and proposed the term ‘viroid’ to denote this new class of subviral pathogens. Similar observations of infectious, low-molecular weight nucleic acids were reported as the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease and chrysanthemum stunt disease, and confirmed the viroid concept proposed by Diener.


Since the discovery of viroids, many plant diseases of considerable economic importance have been shown to be caused by viroids, for example PSTVd in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in chrysanthemum, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in citrus, Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in coconut palm, and Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) in avocado, among others. Viroids are restricted to higher plants and their hosts include monocots and dicots, herbaceous and woody plants, agronomic and ornamental plants. Viroids and viroid diseases are distributed globally, and their distribution may reflect exchange of infected germplasm and transmission through seeds.


Which factor contributed to the name of the disease which was termed as 'spindle tuber'?

shorter tubes of plants

shorter tubes of plants

stunting of the plants

stunting of the plants

dwindled roots and leaves

dwindled roots and leaves

None of these

None of these

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Question 8

Time: 00:00:00

Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. The first viroid to be identified and characterized was Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Potato spindle tuber disease was described in the early 1920s in Irish Cobbler potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in North America by Martin, who suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious virus. Shultz and Folsom investigated the disease and found that it was present in the tuber and could be spread mechanically in the field by leaf damage, tuber and stem grafts, with some evidence of insect transmission by aphids. Symptoms of the disease were characterized by stunting of the plants and elongated tubers; hence the disease was named ‘spindle tuber’. Although the causal agent was initially described as the potato spindle tuber ‘virus’, it was later found not to be a conventional virus, with a nucleic acid encapsidated by a viral protein, but a small, naked RNA molecule. Diener credited with the discovery of this novel pathogen, advanced the concept of viroids and proposed the term ‘viroid’ to denote this new class of subviral pathogens. Similar observations of infectious, low-molecular weight nucleic acids were reported as the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease and chrysanthemum stunt disease, and confirmed the viroid concept proposed by Diener.


Since the discovery of viroids, many plant diseases of considerable economic importance have been shown to be caused by viroids, for example PSTVd in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in chrysanthemum, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in citrus, Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in coconut palm, and Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) in avocado, among others. Viroids are restricted to higher plants and their hosts include monocots and dicots, herbaceous and woody plants, agronomic and ornamental plants. Viroids and viroid diseases are distributed globally, and their distribution may reflect exchange of infected germplasm and transmission through seeds.


What was the composition of the virus / disease?

naked RNA molecule

naked RNA molecule

viral protein

viral protein

nucleic acid

nucleic acid

None of these

None of these

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Question 9

Time: 00:00:00

Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. The first viroid to be identified and characterized was Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Potato spindle tuber disease was described in the early 1920s in Irish Cobbler potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in North America by Martin, who suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious virus. Shultz and Folsom investigated the disease and found that it was present in the tuber and could be spread mechanically in the field by leaf damage, tuber and stem grafts, with some evidence of insect transmission by aphids. Symptoms of the disease were characterized by stunting of the plants and elongated tubers; hence the disease was named ‘spindle tuber’. Although the causal agent was initially described as the potato spindle tuber ‘virus’, it was later found not to be a conventional virus, with a nucleic acid encapsidated by a viral protein, but a small, naked RNA molecule. Diener credited with the discovery of this novel pathogen, advanced the concept of viroids and proposed the term ‘viroid’ to denote this new class of subviral pathogens. Similar observations of infectious, low-molecular weight nucleic acids were reported as the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease and chrysanthemum stunt disease, and confirmed the viroid concept proposed by Diener.


Since the discovery of viroids, many plant diseases of considerable economic importance have been shown to be caused by viroids, for example PSTVd in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in chrysanthemum, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in citrus, Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in coconut palm, and Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) in avocado, among others. Viroids are restricted to higher plants and their hosts include monocots and dicots, herbaceous and woody plants, agronomic and ornamental plants. Viroids and viroid diseases are distributed globally, and their distribution may reflect exchange of infected germplasm and transmission through seeds.


Which among these can be identified as the host of the virus Viroids?

monocots and tricots

monocots and tricots

shrubaceous and woody plants

shrubaceous and woody plants

agronomic and oriental plants

agronomic and oriental plants

None of these

None of these

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Question 10

Time: 00:00:00

Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. The first viroid to be identified and characterized was Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Potato spindle tuber disease was described in the early 1920s in Irish Cobbler potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in North America by Martin, who suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious virus. Shultz and Folsom investigated the disease and found that it was present in the tuber and could be spread mechanically in the field by leaf damage, tuber and stem grafts, with some evidence of insect transmission by aphids. Symptoms of the disease were characterized by stunting of the plants and elongated tubers; hence the disease was named ‘spindle tuber’. Although the causal agent was initially described as the potato spindle tuber ‘virus’, it was later found not to be a conventional virus, with a nucleic acid encapsidated by a viral protein, but a small, naked RNA molecule. Diener credited with the discovery of this novel pathogen, advanced the concept of viroids and proposed the term ‘viroid’ to denote this new class of subviral pathogens. Similar observations of infectious, low-molecular weight nucleic acids were reported as the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease and chrysanthemum stunt disease, and confirmed the viroid concept proposed by Diener.


Since the discovery of viroids, many plant diseases of considerable economic importance have been shown to be caused by viroids, for example PSTVd in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in chrysanthemum, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in citrus, Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) in coconut palm, and Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) in avocado, among others. Viroids are restricted to higher plants and their hosts include monocots and dicots, herbaceous and woody plants, agronomic and ornamental plants. Viroids and viroid diseases are distributed globally, and their distribution may reflect exchange of infected germplasm and transmission through seeds.


Which among these can be associated with the plant diseases caused by Viroids?

Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd)

Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd)

Pospiviroidae

Pospiviroidae

Hepatitis delta virus

Hepatitis delta virus

All of these

All of these

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