Waterfall Model in SDLC

What is Waterfall Model in SDLC?

The Waterfall model is a linear software development process, in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Production/Implementation, and Maintenance.

waterfall model in SDLC

Processes in Waterfall Model in SDLC

SDLC Waterfall Model Processes

In this model, the software development process is divided into a series of distinct phases, each of which has a specific goal. The phases are:

Requirements gathering and analysis:

This phase involves gathering requirements from stakeholders, analysing them, and documenting them.


In this phase, the software design is created based on the requirements gathered in the previous phase. This includes designing the overall architecture of the software, as well as the individual components and their interfaces.


In this phase, the software is actually developed and coded.


In this phase, the software is tested to ensure that it meets the requirements and is free of defects.


In this phase, the software is deployed and made available to users.


After the software is deployed, it enters the maintenance phase, where it is updated and maintained to fix defects, add new features, and address changing user needs.

Advantages of Waterfall Model

Advantages of Waterfall Model of SDLC

The Waterfall model is a linear approach to software development, in which the development process follows a strict sequence of steps. This model has a number of advantages, including:

Clearly defined phases:

The Waterfall model breaks down the development process into distinct phases, which makes it easier to manage and track progress. Each phase has specific deliverables and milestones, which helps to ensure that the project stays on track.

Well-defined requirements:

The Waterfall model requires that all requirements be defined up front, before the project begins. This helps to ensure that the project team has a clear understanding of what needs to be delivered, and can plan accordingly.

Easy to document:

The Waterfall model’s linear approach makes it easy to document the progress of a project. This can be helpful for communication with stakeholders and for future reference.

Easy to understand:

The Waterfall model’s linear approach is easy to understand, even for those who are not familiar with software development. This makes it an accessible model for stakeholders who may not have a technical background.

Suitable for smaller projects:

The Waterfall model is well-suited for smaller projects, where the requirements are well-defined and there is little need for flexibility.

Disadvantages of Waterfall Model

There are several disadvantages of the Waterfall model in the software development life cycle (SDLC):


The Waterfall model is a linear model that follows a strict sequence of steps. This means that changes to the project scope or requirements cannot be easily accommodated, as they require going back to earlier stages in the process. This can lead to delays and increased costs.

Lack of feedback:

The Waterfall model does not allow for much feedback from users or stakeholders until the end of the process. This can lead to issues that are not identified until late in the development cycle, which can be costly to fix.

Lack of collaboration:

The Waterfall model tends to be more geared towards individual tasks and responsibilities, rather than collaboration between team members. This can lead to communication breakdowns and a lack of shared understanding.

Long lead times:

The Waterfall model can take a long time to complete, as each stage must be completed in sequence before moving on to the next. This can lead to delays and missed deadlines.

Limited visibility:

The Waterfall model can be difficult for stakeholders to understand and follow, as they may not have visibility into the progress of the project until later stages. This can lead to misunderstandings and unrealistic expectations.

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