SQL Data Types


Introduction to SQL Data Types 

SQL Data Types define the kind of data that can be inserted into a column of a table and the operations that can be performed on that data. With SQL being a cornerstone of modern data management, comprehending SQL data types is quintessential.

Data types define the nature of values that can be stored in database columns, ensuring data integrity and efficient storage. In this guide, we delve into the intricacies of SQL data types, shedding light on their significance and usage.

What are SQL Datatypes ?

SQL, which stands for Structured Query Language, is a domain-specific language used for managing relational databases. It serves as a powerful tool for interacting with databases, enabling users to store, manipulate, and retrieve data with ease.

SQL provides a standardized way to communicate with database management systems and perform various operations, such as querying, inserting, updating, and deleting data.

Getting Started with SQL

Types of SQL Data Types:

SQL offers a variety of data types, which can be categorized into several groups:

  1. Numeric Data Types: These types are used to store numerical values such as integers (whole numbers) or floating-point numbers (decimal numbers). Examples include INTEGER, BIGINT, FLOAT, and DECIMAL.

  2. Character Data Types: These data types are used for storing character-based data, such as letters, symbols, and text. Examples include CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT.

  3. Date and Time Data Types: These types are employed for storing date and time information. Examples include DATE, TIME, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP.

  4. Boolean Data Type: This type is used to store Boolean values, representing either true or false.

  5. Binary Data Types: These types are used to store binary data, such as images, audio files, or other binary-encoded information. Examples include BLOB and BINARY.

Sql Data Types

DDL: Data Definition Language

DDL commands focus on defining and managing the structure of the database. These commands handle tasks like creating tables, modifying their structure, and setting constraints.

Createto create new table or database
Alterfor alteration
Truncatedelete data from table
Dropto drop a table
Renameto rename a table

DML: Data Manipulation Language

DML commands facilitate the manipulation of data within tables. They include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements

Command Description
insert insert to insert a new row
update to update existing row
delete to delete a row
merge merging two rows or two tables

DCL: Data Control Language

DCL commands manage access to the database objects. They control user permissions, granting or revoking privileges to ensure data security.

Command Description
grant grant permission of right
revoke take back permission.

Advanced SQL Queries


  • JOINs allow users to combine data from multiple tables based on related columns, providing a comprehensive view of the data.


  • Subqueries, also known as nested queries, enable users to use the result of one query as input for another, enhancing data retrieval and manipulation capabilities.

Aggregation Functions

  • SQL provides aggregation functions like SUM, COUNT, AVG, MIN, and MAX, allowing users to summarize and analyze data efficiently.

Common Table Expressions (CTEs)

  • CTEs are temporary result sets that can be used within a larger SQL query, simplifying complex queries and improving readability.

Indexes and Optimization

  • Indexes play a crucial role in optimizing database performance by speeding up data retrieval operations.


Real Life Applications of SQL

Web Development
  • SQL is extensively used in web development to manage user data, content, and backend operations.
Business Intelligence and Reporting
  • Businesses utilize SQL to generate reports, perform data analysis, and gain insights for strategic decision-making.
Data Analysis
  • Data analysts leverage SQL to explore and analyze large datasets, drawing valuable conclusions from raw data.


In conclusion of Introduction of SQL, SQL is a fundamental language for managing relational databases, offering powerful tools for data manipulation and retrieval. Whether you are a data enthusiast, web developer, or business analyst, learning SQL can unlock numerous opportunities and streamline your workflow. Embrace the power of SQL and unleash the true potential of your data-driven endeavors.

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