Technical Interview Questions and Answers
Technical Interview Questions and Answers
We all have to face Interview Questions at some point in our lives but facing a Technical Interview Question and Answer Round from your background can get on the nerves and make you a little nervous.
Here on this page we will be discussing some of the most asked Technical interview questions and Answers people from the engineering background.
The basic motive of the employers is to check your pressure handling skills, judge you on your previous projects done and some technical competencies as well.
Out of these parameters Technical Interview Question and Answer Round can be a little difficult because of the only valid reason that concepts and bookish problem skills becomes a world of past for people when they join and start working with a particular company.
Technical Interview Questions and Answers : Engineering Domains
As main and top recruiters are from Computer Science and Information Technology Branch we will be focusing more towards them but that does not mean that technical engineering questions of other branches will not be discussed
- Computer Science Engineering
- Information Technology
- Electrical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electronics and Communication Engineering
Technical Interview Questions and Answer (CSE)
1. What do you know about the TCP/IP model?
Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol are abbreviated as TCP/IP. The existing Internet architecture utilizes this network model. Protocols are a series of rules that keep a network’s communication running smoothly. The network access layer, Internet layer, Transport layer, and Application layer are the four layers that make up the device.
2. What’s the difference between a Compiler and an Interpreter and differentiate with the help of a diagram?
A compiler takes an entire program and converts it into object code which is typically stored in a file. The object code can be directly executed by the machine after linking. An Interpreter directly executes instructions line by line written in a programming language without converting them into object code or machine code.
3. What do you know about software testing?
Software testing is the process of executing an application with the intent of finding the software bugs. It can also be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a software program works as it meant to be. Types of software testing include alpha testing, beta testing etc.
4. Definition of AI and Machine Learning
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term for efforts to make systems think as humans, be able to imitate the sorts of things humans do, and, eventually, resolve issues better and faster than humans.
Machine Learning is a self-adaptive algorithm that improves its observation and patterns as it gathers more knowledge or new data.
5. What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is a series of protected information and communication techniques that use mathematical principles and algorithms to transform messages in difficult-to-decipher ways.
These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation, digital signing, data privacy verification, internet browsing, and confidential communication.
Technical Interview Questions and Answer (IT)
1. What Is AD?
Directory services, or AD, is Microsoft’s version of a feature that stores information about network resources. Administrators can use directory services to manage and secure resources, and also centrally organize and control access to network resources. DHCP, DNS, Kerberos 5, LDAP, and X.509 certificates are among the industry-standard protocols and APIs provided by AD.
2. Describe a TCP connection sequence.
The flow of a TCP connection is depicted in the following sequence:
- The listener socket is generated by the server and is waiting for remote clients to connect.
- The connect() socket function is used by the client to initiate the TCP handshake (SYN, SYN/ACK, ACK)
- . The accept() socket function is being used by the server to accept the link request.
- To share data over the socket, the client and server should use read() and write() socket functions. The socket is locked by either the server or the client. The TCP closure sequence (FINs and ACKs) is activated as a result of this.
- To accept another connection from a remote client, the server either closes the listener socket or repeats step 2 from the beginning.
3. What is the subnet for a class C network?
The default Class C mask is: 255.255.255.0. To make smaller networks, called sub networks, we will borrow bits from the host portion of the mask. Since the Class C mask only uses the last octet for host addressing, we only have 8 bits at our disposal.
Take note that in the table below I do not assume subnet zero. Cisco does teach a subnet zero assumption but they do not test that way. I have chosen to follow the exam.
4. What do the ‘INSERT’, ‘UPDATE’, and ‘DROP’ queries do?
INSERT – inserts records into a table.
Syntax : INSERT INTO table_name(coloumnName1,coloumnName2..)values(value1, value2..)
For eg: Insert into Student(StudentId,StudentName) values (1,”Raj”);
DELETE – deletes records from a table.
Syntax: DELETE FROM table_name where expression
For eg: DELETE FROM Students WHERE StudentId = 1
DROP – deletes the entire table.
Syntax: DROP table table_name
For eg: DROP table Students;
5. What does an intrusion detection system do? How does it do it?
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a software program or hardware appliance that monitors network and system traffic for unusual behavior and known threats and sends out warnings if it detects them.
The ultimate aim of an IDS is to alert IT staff to the likelihood of a network intrusion. The source address of the intrusion, the target/victim address, and the type of attack that is suspected will all be included in the alerting information.
Intrusion detection is a passive technology that identifies and acknowledges a problem without interfering with network traffic flow.
In contrast, firewalls that block known malware and intrusion prevention system (IPS) technology, which, as the name implies, also blocks malicious traffic, are both available.
An IDS, on the other hand, does not prevent malware.
Technical Interview Questions and Answer (EE)
1. What Is The Difference Between A Verilog Task And A Verilog Function?
The rules for separating tasks from roles are as follows:
1. A task may contain time-controlling statements, and a function must execute in one simulation time unit.
2. A task cannot be enabled by a function; however, a task may be enabled by other tasks or functions.
3. A function must have at least one input type argument but no output or input type argument; a task may have zero or more types of arguments.
4. A function must return a single value, while a task must not.
2. Explain The Differences Between “direct Mapped”, “fully Associative”, And “set Associative” Caches ?
If each block has only one place it can appear in the cache, the cache is said to be direct mapped. The mapping is usually (block-frame address) modulo (number of blocks in cache).
If a block can be placed anywhere in the cache, the cache is said to be fully associative.
If a block can be placed in a restricted set of places in the cache, the cache is said to be set associative. A set is a group of two or more blocks in the cache. A block is first mapped onto a set, and then the block can be placed anywhere within the set. The set is usually chosen by bit selection; that is, (block-frame address) modulo (number of sets in cache). If there are n blocks in a set, the cache placement is called n-way set associative.
3. What Is “pu” In Electrical Engineering?
Pu stands for per unit, and it will be used in a single line diagram of power distribution, that is comparable to a large electrical circuit with a large number of components (generators, transformers, and loads) of varying ratings (in MVA and KV).
To put all of the ratings into a single board, we use the pu principle, which considers the component’s largest MVA and KV ratings as base values, followed by all other ratings.
4. Why Link Is Provided In Neutral Of An Ac Circuit And Fuse In Phase Of Ac Circuit?
The link is given at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which different links are taken for the individual control circuits, and it is thus provided in a link shape to withstand high Amps. However, in the case of a fuse in a phase of an AC circuit, the fuse rating is determined only for the specific circuit (i.e. load). As a consequence, if there is a problem, the fuse in the part will blow.
5. What Is An Exciter And How Does It Work?
Static exciters and rotory exciters are the two types of exciters.
The excitor’s role is to supply the generator’s fixed poles with excitation dc voltage.
A rotory excitor is a small generator mounted on the main generator’s shaft. If it’s a dc generator, it’ll use slip rings and brushes to supply dc to the rotory poles (conventional alternator).
If the excitor is an ac excitor, the output is rectified by spinning diodes, and dc is supplied to the main fixed poles. The ac excitor is an ac generator with stationary field windings and spinning armature. Residual magnetism produces the original voltage. It provides the generator with the requisite starting torque.
Technical Interview Questions and Answer (CE)
1. How Are Freeway Bridges Built?
To support the bridge, cement/reinforced-with-rebar stanchions are spaced across the highway after the expected traffic for the bridge is estimated. An ‘off-ramp’ from the highway to the bridge, as well as a ‘on-ramp’ to the next lane, is installed. To form the base, cement/rebar slabs are constructed and raised with cranes, and voila! Travel with caution.
The frame that supports the bridge deck may be reinforced concrete, structural steel, or a mixture of steel and concrete, considering the fact that the bridge deck/roadway is almost invariably a concrete slab.
2. What Reinforcements Are Used In The Process Of Prestressing?
The following are the most important forms of reinforcements used in prestressing:
- Spalling Reinforcement: The tension behind the filled region of the anchor blocks is caused by spalling stresses. The surface concrete breaks off as a result of this. Poisson’s effects, strain interoperability, and stress trajectory shapes are the most possible causes of such stresses.
- Equilibrium reinforcements: Where there are numerous anchorages and prestressing loads are applied in a sequential fashion, this form of reinforcement is necessary.
- Bursting Reinforcements: As stress trajectories are concave towards the load line of operation, certain types of stresses exist. Reinforcements in the form of bursting are necessary to mitigate certain stresses.
3. What Are The Different Type Of Slump Test Indications?
Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the workability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests.
They are as follows:
- True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop of the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration.
- Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth in the long run effecting the durability of the concrete.
- Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.
4. During Reclamation How Can The Occurrence Of Mud Waves Can Be Rectified?
There are a variety of options for addressing the mudslide problem:
1. Total clearance of all mud that has been disturbed. This approach is known to be one of the most effective. Since the disturbed mud has been removed, any filling material is used to replace it. However, as opposed to other approaches, this one can be costly.
2. Surcharging loads are put on top of the mud waves to speed up the consolidation of disrupted mud. Band drains are also built to assist with the consolidation process. In contrast to the other processes, this one is very sluggish.
3. Partially extracting the disturbed mud: This approach is a variation of the former two, in which the top layer is stripped while the lower layer is handled with the surcharging technique.
5. For A Washout Valve Why Are Two Gate Valves Required In Normal Practice?
Washout valves are mainly used for routine repairs, such as water main maintenance. This is equivalent to allowing water to run out of a water main as it is being washed. A gate valve is normally located at the junctions where a pipe branches out to a washout point to separate the two pipelines. During normal operation, the gate valve mounted above is normally left open. A second gate valve is mounted further downstream, which stays closed during regular washout valve operation.
If this valve is not installed, the branched out pipe’s pipe portion will stay dry throughout normal service, raising the possibility of disruption and leakage. The branched out water main produces water while the downstream valve is mounted and in regular service. A leak can be detected instantly with two gate valves installed.
Technical Interview Questions and Answers (ME)
1. What Is The Role Of Nitrogen In Welding?
By stopping oxygen and air from penetrating the molten metal during the welding process, nitrogen is used to avoid porosity in the welding member. Other gases, such as Argon, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and the gases emitted when the flux burns away during SMAW (stick) welding, are also used for this purpose.
2. How Does Hydraulics Work?
A prime mover (Electric Motor or Engine) drives a positive displacement pump (gear, vane, or piston pump), which suctions fluid from the reservoir and delivers it to the machine. During loading, a resistance to flow produces friction, which is then used to complete the task through a cylinder for linear motion or a hydraulic motor for rotary motion. The direction of flow is managed by a direction control valve, and the system pressure is controlled by a pressure control valve, while the flow is controlled by a flow control valve.
3. What Does Angular Momentum Mean?
Angular momentum is an expression of an objects mass and rotational speed.
Momentum is the velocity of an object times it is mass, or how fast something is moving how much it weigh. Therefore, angular momentum is the objects mass times the angular velocity where angular velocity is how fast something is rotating expressed in terms like revolutions per minute or radians per second or degrees per second.
4. What Does A Rolling Offset Look Like?
In the piping and sheet metal (ductwork) industries, rolling offsets are used to adjust the height and position of piping or ductwork by using two fittings to offset through obstacles. Rolling offsets are most widely used to adjust height and position where the size of the fittings is limited.
5. What Is An Ortographic Drawing?
Orthographic projections are views of a 3D object, showing 3 faces of it. The 3 drawings are aligned so that if the page were folded, it would create part of the shape. It is also called multiview projections.
The 3 faces of an object consist of its plan view, front view and side view. There are 2 types of orthographic projection, which are 1st angle projection and 3rd angle projection.
Technical Interview Questions and Answers(ECE)
1.What Are Different Categories Of Antenna And Give An Example Of Each?
Different categories of antenna are as follows :
- Wire Antennas – Short Dipole Antenna
- Microstrip Antennas – Rectangular Microstrip (Patch) Antennas
- Reflector Antennas – Corner Reflector
- Travelling Wave Antennas – Helical Antennas
- Aperture Antennas – Slot Antenna
- Other Antennas – NFC Antennas
2. What Is Ionospheric Bending?
When a radio wave travels into the ionospheric layer it experiences refraction due to difference in density. The density of ionospheric layer is rarer than the layer below which causes the radio wave to be bent away from the normal.
Also the radio wave experiences a force from the ions in the ionospheric layer. If incident at the correct angle the radio wave is completely reflected back to the inner atmosphere due to total internal reflection.
This phenomenon is called ionospheric reflection and is used in mobile communication for radio wave propagation also known as ionospheric bending of radio waves.
3. Explain The Concept Of Frequency Re-use?
The whole of the geographical area is divided into hexagonal shape geometrical area called cell and each cell having its own transceiver. Each BTS (cell site) allocated different band of frequency or different channel.
Each BTS antenna is designed in such a way that i cover cell area in which it is placed with frequency allotted without interfering other cell signals.
The design process of selecting and allocating channel groups for all of the cellular base station within system is called frequency reuse.
4. What Are The Advantages Of CDMA?
Advantages of CDMA are as follows :
- Frequency diversity : Since the propagation is distributed over a wide bandwidth, it is less influenced by noise. As bandwidth is expanded, the S/N ratio grows, meaning that noise is minimized.
- Multiplication Resistance : The CDMA chipping codes have a strong correlation as well as a low autocorrelation. As a consequence, unlike in other multipath settings, a variant of the signal that is interrupted by more than one chip interval does not interfere with the dominant signal.
- Privacy : Since spread spectrum is accomplished by the use of noise-like signals, each user has a specific code, anonymity is assured.
- Graceful Degradation : In contrast to FDMA and TDMA, CDMA enables more people to use the device at the same time.
5. List Some Advantages Of GSM?
Here are some advantages of GSM :
- Within homes, there is less signal degradation.
- GSM has reached maturity, which leads to a more secure network with more robust features.
- Ability to use repeaters.
- Because of the pulse nature of GSM delivery, talk time is usually longer.
- Subscriber Identity Modules enable users to swap networks and handsets at their leisure.
- GSM is available in almost every region, so international roaming is not a concern.