ACID Properties in DBMS

ACID Properties in DBMS 


In this article, we will learn about ACID Properties in DBMS.

  • A transaction is a single logical action which accesses and modify the contents of the database through reading and write operations
  • For maintaining consistency of the database before and after a transaction, certain properties are followed called as acid properties.
ACID Properties in DBMS

Atomicity (A) 


  • An atomic transaction simply means that the transaction happens only if it is able to be completed and achieve its purpose or if not it doesn’t happen at all
  • Atomicity defines that there are no transactions that occur partially hence the atomicity is also known as “all or nothing rule”.
Atomicity in ACID Properties

It is associated with two operations

  • Abort: If a transaction is aborted i.e. it is incomplete, changes made to the database are not visible
  • Commit: If a transaction is committed i.e. it is complete changes made to the database or visible


Consider a transaction T which consists of T1 and T2: Task is to transfer 100 from account X to account Y

  • T1: Deduct the amount from account X
  • T2: Credit the amount to account Y

If the transaction fails after the completion of T1 and before completion of T2 then the amount will be deducted from account X but it will not be added to the account Y which ultimately results in inconsistent database state


  • Integrity constraints (maintain certain rules to authenticate database) must be maintained to ensure your database is consistent before and after the transaction
  • Consistency refers to the correctness of the database


The total amount before and after the transaction must be maintained.

  • Total amount before T occurs = 500 + 200 = 700.
  • Total amount after T occurs = 400 + 300 = 700.
  • The database is said to be inconsistent if T1 is completed but fails as a result total
  • Transaction P is incomplete

Isolation (I) 


  • Isolation ensures that multiple transactions can occur at the same time provided each transaction is independent and shall not interfere in other transaction
  • Changes in one particular transaction are visible to any other transaction until unless a particular change in the transaction is written to the memory.

 Durability (D) 


  • Durability ensures that once after the completion of the transaction execution the updates and modifications to the database are stored and return to a disc so that they can be used whenever a system failure occurs
  • So that all the changes become permanent and stored in non-volatile memory so that any action can be referred and never lost

What is the purpose of this ACID properties ?

  • Provides a mechanism for correctness and consistency of a database system
  • As a result, each transaction is independent, consistent to each other and all actions are stored properly and permanently and supports failure recovery.
Learn more about DBMS here on this page.