ACID Properties in DBMS

ACID Properties in DBMS 

In this article, we will learn about ACID Properties in DBMS.

  • A transaction is a single logical action that accesses and modifies the contents of the database through reading and writing operations
  • To maintain consistency of the database before and after a transaction, specific properties are followed called acid properties.
Acid properties

Atomicity (A) 

  • An atomic transaction simply means that the transaction happens only if it can be completed and achieve its purpose or if not it doesn’t happen at all.
  • Atomicity defines that there are no transactions that occur partially hence the atomicity is also known as the “all or nothing rule”.
Atomicity in ACID Properties

It is associated with two operations

  • Abort: If a transaction is aborted i.e. it is incomplete, changes made to the database are not visible.
  • Commit: If a transaction is committed i.e. it is complete changes made to the database or visible.


Consider a transaction T which consists of T1 and T2: Task is to transfer 100 from account X to account Y

  • T1: Deduct the amount from account X
  • T2: Credit the amount to account Y

If the transaction fails after the completion of T1 and before completion of T2 then the amount will be deducted from account X but it will not be added to the account Y which ultimately results in an inconsistent database state.


  • Integrity constraints (maintain certain rules to authenticate database) must be maintained to ensure your database is consistent before and after the transaction.
  • Consistency refers to the correctness of the database.


The total amount before and after the transaction must be maintained.

  • Total amount before T occurs = 500 + 200 = 700.
  • Total amount after T occurs = 400 + 300 = 700.
  • The database is said to be inconsistent if T1 is completed but fails as a result total.
  • Transaction P is incomplete.

Isolation (I) 

  • Isolation ensures that multiple transactions can occur at the same time provided each transaction is independent and shall not interfere in another transaction.
  • Changes in one particular transaction are visible to any other transaction unless a particular change in the transaction is written to the memory.

 Durability (D) 

  • Durability ensures that once after the completion of the transaction execution the updates and modifications to the database are stored and returned to a disc so that they can be used whenever a system failure occurs.
  • So that all the changes become permanent and stored in non-volatile memory so that any action can be referred to and never lost.

What is the purpose of these ACID properties?

  • Provides a mechanism for the correctness and consistency of a database system.
  • As a result, each transaction is independent, consistent with each other and all actions are stored properly and permanently and support failure recovery.
ACID Properties in DBMS
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