Rabin Karp Algo in Java

Rabin Karp Algorithm (Rolling Hash)

Rabin-Karp string searching algorithm calculates a numerical (hash) value for the pattern p, and for each m-character substring of text t. Then it compares the numerical values instead of comparing the actual symbols. If any match is found, it compares the pattern with the substring by naive approach.

Lets understand this with the help of an example:-

• Input:  aaaaab
Output: aab

First will calculate the hashcode using hashfunction and iterate throughout the input string and find if the same hashcode is present if its present then we will check for the actual pattern.

Algorithm

• It’s based on rolling hash. Suppose we have a hash function that take string as input  and it gives a unique hash.
• First we need to create a hash using hashfunction.
• Lets understand this using example:-
• Main string – abcde
• Pattern to find – abc
• To calculate the hash of the next substring, subtract the last most value and add the hash value of the new charater.
• hash(abc) = 97 * 30 + 98*3+ 99 * 3 2
• Subtract the first ASCII character
• hash(bcd) = 97 * 30 + 98*3+ 99 * 3 2    – 99

=  98*3+ 99 * 3 2

• Divide the whole by the prime number

=  (98*3+ 99 * 3 2) / 3

=  98*3+ 99 * 3 1

• Multiply the ASCII of the last character with the power of prime raise to the power length of the substring -1 and then add it to the new hash.

=  98*3+ 99 * 3 1 + 100 * 3 2

• And this will be continued to find all new hashes.

Java Code :-

Run

``` public class Main {
public final static int d = 256;

static void search(String pat, String txt, int q)
{
int M = pat.length();
int N = txt.length();
int i, j;
int p = 0; // hash value for pattern
int t = 0; // hash value for txt
int h = 1;

for (i = 0; i < M - 1; i++)
h = (h * d) % q;

for (i = 0; i < M; i++) {
p = (d * p + pat.charAt(i)) % q;
t = (d * t + txt.charAt(i)) % q;
}

// Slide the pattern over text one by one
for (i = 0; i <= N - M; i++) {
if (p == t) {
/* Check for characters one by one */
for (j = 0; j < M; j++) {
if (txt.charAt(i + j) != pat.charAt(j))
break;
}

// if p == t and pat[0...M-1] = txt[i, i+1, ...i+M-1]
if (j == M)
System.out.println("Pattern found at index " + i);
}

// Calculate hash value for next window of text: Remove
if (i < N - M) {
t = (d * (t - txt.charAt(i) * h) + txt.charAt(i + M)) % q;

// We might get negative value of t, converting it
// to positive
if (t < 0)
t = (t + q);
}
}
}

/* Driver program to test above function */
public static void main(String[] args)
{
String txt = "PREP INSTA";
String pat = "PREP";
int q = 101; // A prime number
search(pat, txt, q);
}
}```

Output:-

`Pattern found at index 0`