C program to find the frequency of each element in the array

Frequency of Element in C

Frequency of Element in C

Here, in this page we will discuss the program to find the frequency of element in C programming language. We are given with an array and need to print the frequency of each given element.

Method Discussed :

  • Method 1 : Using Extra Space
  • Method 2 : Naive approach without extra space.
  • Method 3 : Using Sorting Technique.

Method 1:

In this method we will count the frequency of each elements using two for loops.

  • To check the status of visited elements create a array of size n.
  • Run a loop from index 0 to n and check if (visited[i]==1) then skip that element.
  • Otherwise create a variable count = 1 to keep the count of frequency.
  • Run a loop from index i+1 to n
  • Check if(arr[i]==arr[j]), then increment the count by 1 and set visited[j]=1.
  • After complete iteration of for loop print element along with value of count.

Time and Space Complexity :

  • Time Complexity : O(n2)
  • Space Complexity : O(n)
Frequency of element in C

Code in C

Run
#include<stdio.h>

// Main function to run the program
int main() 
{ 
    int arr[] = {10, 30, 10, 20, 10, 20, 30, 10}; 
    int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); 

    int visited[n];
 
    for(int i=0; i<n; i++){

       if(visited[i]==0){
          int count = 1;
          for(int j=i+1; j<n; j++){
             if(arr[i]==arr[j]){
                count++;
                visited[j]=1;
             }
          }

          printf("%d occurs %d times\n", arr[i], count);
       }
   }

   return 0; 
}

Output

10 occurs 4 times
30 occurs 2 times
20 occurs 2 times

Method 2 :

In this method we will use the naive way to find the frequency of elements in the given integer array without using any extra space.

Method 2 : Code in C

Run
#include<stdio.h>

void countFrequency(int *arr, int size){

    for (int i = 0; i < size; i++){
        int flag = 0;
        int count = 0;

        // Counting of any element has to be delayed to its last occurrence
        for (int j = i+1; j < size; j++){
            if (arr[i] == arr[j]){
                flag = 1;
                break;
            }
        }

        // The continue keyword is used to end the current iteration 
        // in a for loop (or a while loop), and continues to the next iteration
        if (flag == 1)
            continue;
            
        for(int j = 0;j<=i;j++){
            if(arr[i]==arr[j])
                count +=1;
        }
        
        printf("%d : %d\n", arr[i], count);
    }
}

int main()
{
    int arr[] = {5, 8, 5, 7, 8, 10};
    int size = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
    
    countFrequency(arr, size);
    
    return 0;
}

Output

5 : 2
7 : 1
8 : 2
10 : 1

Method 3 :

In this method we will sort the array then, count the frequency of the elements.

Time and Space Complexity :

  • Time Complexity : O(nlogn)
  • Space Complexity : O(1)

Method 3 : Code in C

Run
#include<stdio.h>
 
void countDistinct(int arr[], int n)
{
    //Sorting of the array
    for(int i=0; i<n; i++){
        for(int j=i+1; j<n; j++){ if(arr[i]>arr[j]){
                int temp = arr[i];
                arr[i] = arr[j];
                arr[j] = temp;
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Traverse the sorted array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++){
        int count = 1;

        // Move the index ahead whenever
        // you encounter duplicates
        while (i < n - 1 && arr[i] == arr[i + 1]){
            i++;
            count++;
        }
        
        printf("%d : %d\n", arr[i], count);
    }
 
}
 
// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {5, 8, 5, 7, 8, 10};
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
    countDistinct(arr, n);
    return 0;
}

Output

5 : 2
7 : 1
8 : 2
10 : 1