LTI Technical Interview Questions with Solution 2019

LTI Technical Interview Questions with Solutions

LTI Technical  round is very  easy-medium. Candidate”s  has to clear this Technical round to land next round.Most of the time LTI Questions are asked from the technical section(C/C++/Java).

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Some tips & tricks for Technical interview for coding branches (CS/IT/MCA):

  • Maximum Question ask from C / C++ / OOPS / Software Engineering / DSA
  • Mentions technical skills that you have on the resume.
  • Questions may be ask from Coding or software related field.

If you want to get full information click here.


L&T Technical Questions Answers 2019

Q1. Tell the difference between C and C++?

1. C is Procedural Language.

C++ is non Procedural i.e Object oriented Language.

2. No virtual Functions are present in C

The concept of virtual Functions are used in C++.

3. In C, Polymorphism is not possible.

The concept of polymorphism is used in C++. Polymorphism is the most Important Feature of OOPS.

4. Operator overloading is not possible in C.

Operator overloading is one of the greatest Feature of C++.

5. Top down approach is used in Program Design.

Bottom up approach adopted in Program Design.

6. No namespace Feature is present in C Language.

Namespace Feature is present in C++ for avoiding Name collision.

7. Multiple Declaration of global variables are allowed.

Multiple Declaration of global variables are not allowed.

Q2. Define the terms abstraction and encapsulation.

Abstraction deals with hiding the details and showing the essential things to the user whereas encapsulation bind your data and code together as a single unit, or in java you can say it takes all your methods, variables and bind them together in a single class.


Q3. Explain the significance of multi-level and multiple inheritances?

Multiple Inheritance is a concept in which one class can extend more than one class while Multi-Level Inheritance is when one class can inherit from only one base class and the derived class can become base class of some another class.

For instance, a child inherits traits from both father and mother so child is a derived class inheriting from more than one base class that is, father and mother which is an example of multiple inheritance. While consider a scenario where a class student is derived from class person and person in turn is derived from class living things which is an example of multi level inheritance.


Q4. What is the process of normalization?

Normalisation is a data analysis technique to design a database system. It allows the database designer to understand the current data structures in an organisation. Furthermore, it aids any future changes and enhancements to the system.

Normalisation is a technique for producing relational schema with the following properties:

No Information Redundancy

No Update Anomalies

The end result of normalisation is a set of entities, which removes unnecessary redundancy (ie duplication of data) and avoids the anomalies which will be discussed next.

 Q5. Tell the better time complexity -O(n^2) or O(n lg n ) and why?
Q6. Define with example an object oriented programming language?

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around objects rather than “actions” and data rather than logic. Historically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces output data.

The programming challenge was seen as how to write the logic, not how to define the data. Object-oriented programming takes the view that what we really care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than the logic required to manipulate them. Examples of objects range from human beings (described by name, address, and so forth) to buildings and floors (whose properties can be described and managed) down to the little widgets on a computer desktop (such as buttons and scroll bars).

The first step in OOP is to identify all the objects the programmer wants to manipulate and how they relate to each other, an exercise often known as data modeling. Once an object has been identified,  it is generalized as a class of objects (think of Plato’s concept of the “ideal” chair that stands for all chairs) which defines the kind of data it contains and any logic sequences that can manipulate it. Each distinct logic sequence is known as a method. Objects communicate with well-defined interfaces called messages.


Q7. Explain the significance of keywords: private, protected, public

Public class members and functions can be used from outside of a class by any function or other classes. You can access public data members or function directly by using dot operator (.) or (arrow operator-> with pointers).
Protected Specifier
Protected class members and functions can be used inside its class. Protected members and functions cannot be accessed from other classes directly. Additionally protected access specifier allows friend functions and classes to access these data members and functions. Protected data members and functions can be used by the class derived from this class. More information about access modifiers and inheritance can be found in C++ Inheritance
Private Specifier
Private class members and functions can be used only inside of class and by friend functions and classes.


Q8. Explain the importance of entity-relationship diagrams with example.

An entity relationship diagram (ERD) shows the relationships of entity sets stored in a database. An entity in this context is an object, a component of data. An entity set is a collection of similar entities. These entities can have attributes that define its properties.

By defining the entities, their attributes, and showing the relationships between them, an ER diagram illustrates the logical structure of databases.

ER diagrams are used to sketch out the design of a database.

Entity Relationship Diagram

 Q9. What are the five normal forms, partial FDs and trivial FDs?

First normal form (1NF)

As per the rule of first normal form, an attribute (column) of a table cannot hold multiple values. It should hold only atomic values.

Second normal form (2NF)

A table is said to be in 2NF if both the following conditions hold:

Table is in 1NF (First normal form)

No non-prime attribute is dependent on the proper subset of any candidate key of table.

Third Normal form (3NF)

A table design is said to be in 3NF if both the following conditions hold:

Table must be in 2NF

Transitive functional dependency of non-prime attribute on any super key should be removed.


Boyce Codd normal form (BCNF)

It is an advance version of 3NF that’s why it is also referred as 3.5NF. BCNF is stricter than 3NF. A table complies with BCNF if it is in 3NF and for every functional dependency X->Y, X should be the super key of the table.

Partial dependency means that a nonprime attribute is functionally dependent on part of a candidate key. 

Trivial − If a functional dependency (FD) X → Y holds, where Y is a subset of X, then it is called a trivial FD.


Q10. Explain polymorphism with example?

Generally, the ability to appear in many forms. In object-oriented programming,polymorphism refers to a programming language’s ability to process objects differently depending on their data type or class. More specifically, it is the ability to redefine methods for derived classes.


Q11. Define threading and its needs? What is the need of having a thread?

A thread is the smallest unit of processing that can be performed in an OS. In most modern operating systems, a thread exists within a process – that is, a single process may contain multiple threads.Q17. Explain the importance of TCP/IP reference model?

Because threads exist in processes, they are also called as lightweight processes. A process can execute multiple threads at a time and this is known as multi-threading. Due to multi-threading, you can download as well as watch a video, both at the same time. Threads, like processes, are run in the operating system.


Q12. Explain the time complexity of quick sort and merge sort.

Merge sort

The complexity of merge sort is O(nlogn) and NOT O(logn). The divide step computes the midpoint of each of the sub-arrays. Each of this step just takes O(1) time. The conquer step recursively sorts two subarrays of n/2 (for even n) elements each.

Quick sort

O(nlogn),  when median selected as pivot, partition method will divide array into equal halves.. so logn level recursion tree will form with cn work(partition method)  at each level..
The recurence would be..
T(n) = 2T(n/2) + Θ(n)
Therefore total time complexity =Θ(nlogn)  in all cases


Q13. Differentiate between the primary key and unique key.

Unique key can accept only one null value. By default, Primary key is clustered index and data in the database table is physically organized in the sequence of clustered index. By default, Unique key is a unique non-clustered index. 


Q14. Explain the referential integrity

Referential integrity refers to the accuracy and consistency of data within a relationship. In relationships, data is linked between two or more tables. This is achieved by having the foreign key (in the associated table) reference a primary key value (in the primary – or parent – table).

Q15. Write some example queries of SQL.

create a table to store information about weather observation stations: 
— No duplicate ID fields allowed


populate the table STATION with a few rows:

INSERT INTO STATION VALUES (13, ‘Phoenix’, ‘AZ’, 33, 112); 
INSERT INTO STATION VALUES (44, ‘Denver’, ‘CO’, 40, 105); 
INSERT INTO STATION VALUES (66, ‘Caribou’, ‘ME’, 47, 68);


Q16. Write a C program to find out the max no between 2 numbers.


 * C program to find maximum between two numbers





int main()


    int num1, num2;


    /* Input two numbers from user */

    printf(“Enter two numbers: “);

    scanf(“%d%d”, &num1, &num2);


    /* If num1 is maximum */

    if(num1 > num2)


        printf(“%d is maximum”, num1);       



    /* If num2 is maximum */

    if(num2 > num1)


        printf(“%d is maximum”, num2);



    /* Additional condition check for equality */

    if(num1 == num2)


        printf(“Both are equal”);



    return 0;


Q17. Name all the algorithms used for sorting and explain one algorithm.

Bucket Sort

Bubble Sort

The algorithm works by comparing each item in the list with the item next to it, and swapping them if required. In other words, the largest element has bubbled to the top of the array. The algorithm repeats this process until it makes a pass all the way through the list without swapping any items.

Selection Sort

Merge sort

Heap sort

Insertion Sort


Q18. What is heap sort?

Heap sort is a comparison based sorting technique based on Binary Heap data structure. It is similar to selection sort where we first find the maximum element and place the maximum element at the end. We repeat the same process for remaining element.

Student Technical  Interview Experience 2019

Student Name: Madhu

The TR and the HR rounds were scheduled for the next day. All of us were asked to dress in
formals and had to carry one copy of our resumes. The Technical Round was the toughest of
all. They asked to write the logic for bubble sort and Fibonacci series. Later, they asked me
some questions related to the basics of Java and JavaScript. Later, they asked me a few
questions on Pointers and Arrays. He gave me some 20-25 pseudocodes and asked me to
solve them in 15 minutes. I solved almost 17-18 of them. Later they asked me a few
questions related to my final year project. I answered all the questions of the interviewer
with confidence.

Student Name: Salani

I was very nervous about the technical round as I had no idea what type of question will be
asked. The few technical questions the interviewer asked to me were:
1. Difference between generator and alternator?
2. Why is AC system preferred over DC system?
3. Various types of cables are used for transmission?
4. What is a slip in an induction motor?
I confidently answered all the questions as I knew all of them. I cleared the third round, and I
was selected for the HR interview round.

LTI HR Questions answers 2019

After the Technical round , you have to clear this HR  round. HR round is last round of LTI Recruitment process. Candidate must have to clear HR round to get dream  job successfully.