Coginizant Interview Questions

CTS Interview Questions

Cognizant Interview Questions for different types for drives are generally followed by an Interview for both technical and HR Round.

Cognizant Interview Questions for Freshers through AMCAT

Cognizant Interview Questions for Freshers through Online Exam

Cognizant has two different interview processes, based on the reputation of the college

Interview Process for Grade A colleges like – VIT, NITs, Manipal etc

  • Written Round
  • HR Interview Round

Interview Process for Grade B and C colleges most state colleges

  • Written Round
  • Technical Interview Round (Technical + Coding)
  • HR Interview Round


This round is only conducted in Grade B colleges, Cognizant doesn’t conduct this round for grade A colleges, instead they directly conduct HR round in such colleges.

You should check with your placements department of the email that CTS sent to your college describing the placement process.

On our Technical Interview Dashboard you will find all the most asked questions and tips and tricks to clear this round.

Along with this technical questions the interviewer will also ask some basic Coding Questions that you can find on our TCS Coding Interview Dashboard

For CS/IT – Deep questions on C/ C++ or Java / OOPS/ DBMS / OS / Software Engineering / Project

For Non CS/IT – C/OOPS/ branch specific basic questions/ Project specific questions

Note – HR and Coding Round Sections are also there at the end of the page.

CTS Vs other Mass hiring Companies Interview Process Comparison

  1. Technical
    1. CTS Interviewer will try to keep the Technical Round to basic C programming Codes(Find on CTS Coding Interview Dashboard), Basic theory and definitions and Focus more on your English.
    2. Other companies like TCS and Tech Mahindra will not focus more on English speaking but your technical skills
  2. Duration of Interview
    1. While in Accenture and CTS the duration of Interview is around 15 – 20 mins
    2. For TCS it ranges anywhere between 30 mins to 45 mins, for Tech Mahindra it may be an hour or more.
  3. Coding Questions
    1. Companies like Accenture and Deloitte don’t ask coding questions at all
    2. But, Cognizant, TCS, Wipro will ask you coding questions like Palindrome, pattern printing etc even if you’re from Non CS IT round.
  4. C / OOPS Questions
    1. Cognizant will necessarily ask some basic C / OOPS concept to all Branches. Well, you’re applying to an IT company they expect you to know a little about C / OOPS theory.
    2. Companies like Accenture, Deloitte don’t ask C / OOPS concept. But, their training is very difficult, so even if you get selected. You need to learn all about coding and technical aspects
  5. Freedom of Topic Selection
    1. All bulk companies, including Cognizant, give freedom of topic selection to you, generally the interviewer will ask you the favourite subject and will ask questions from that, or will ask you the questions from topics, chapters and projects mentioned in your Resume.

The following are trends in CTS Interview –

  1. They always keep chocolates in the room and offer them to students
  2. Always ask student
    1. How was your day
    2. Tell me about yourself(even in technical round)
  3. Try to make student comfortable if he/she is nervous
  4. Ask about bad scores in graduations, 10th or 12th

CTS asks interviewer to fill the interview feedback in 5 categories

  1. Strongly disagree
  2. Disagree
  3. Average
  4. Agree
  5. Strongly Agree

They will check mark one option from above for the following questions –


  1. Candidate has positive attitude towards learning
  2. Candidate is good at coding abilities
  3. Candidate has high potential to pick up a technology and expertise it, given he is provided with training
  4. Candidate has good proficiency in his core branch subjects
  5. Candidate is able to make cross arguments in professional English
  • What is a pointer?
  • What is a dangling pointer?
  • What is a data type?
  • What is size of integer data type?
  • What is the size of char data type?
  • What is the size of unsigned char?
  • What is the size of signed char?
  • What is the size of long?
  • What is the size of short?
  • What is the range of integer data type in C?
  • What is the size of float data type?
  • What is malloc?
  • What is the difference between do while and for loop?
  • What is a string?
  • /0 in string?
  • What is recursion?
  • What is printf?
  • What is math.h?
  • What is the argument of a function?
  • What is assignment operator in C?
  • What is the relational operator in C?
  • What is the logical operator in C?
  • What is the bitwise operator in C?
  • What are all decision control statements in C?
  • What are all loop control statements in C?
  • What is the difference between while and do-while loops in C?
  • What is the difference between single equal “=” and double equal “==” operators in C?
  • What is the difference between pre increment operator and post increment operator?
  • What is the difference between pre decrement operator and post decrement operator?
  • What is “&” and “*” operators in C?

If student says he knows Java

  1. Difference between C++ and Java?


  1. What are virtual Functions?
  2. What is overloading?
  3. What is overriding?
  4. What is polymorphism?
  5. What is data abstraction?
  6. What is encapsulation?
  7. What is inheritance?
  8. What is constructor?
  9. What is destructor?
  10. Abstract Classes vs Interfaces
  11. How to implement Multiple Inheritance in C++?
  12. What are the Features of OOPS?
  13. How to use this keyword?
  14. What is static keyword?
  15. What is a class?
  16. What is difference between struct and object?
  17. What is an object?
  18. What is friend function?
  19. What are access modifiers?
  20. Difference between private and protected?
  21. What is keyword Auto for?
  1. What is a Data Structure?
  2. What is Linked lists?
  3. Is array of data structure?
  4. Define a binary search Tree?
  5. What is a binary Tree?
    1. A binary tree is one type of data structure that has two nodes, a left node, and a right node. In programming, binary trees are an extension of the linked list structures.
  6. What is difference between Push and Pop?
    1. Pushing and popping applies to the way data is stored and retrieved in a stack. A push denotes data being added to it, meaning data is being “pushed” into the stack. On the other hand, a pop denotes data retrieval, and in particular, refers to the topmost data being accessed.
  7. What is the difference between a stack and array?
    1. Stack follows a LIFO pattern. It means that data access follows a sequence wherein the last data to be stored when the first one to be extracted. Arrays, on the other hand, does not follow a particular order and instead can be accessed by referring to the indexed element within the array.
  8. What is a doubly linked Lists?
    1. Doubly linked lists are a special type of linked list wherein traversal across the data elements can be done in both directions. This is made possible by having two links in every node, one that links to the next node and another one that connects to the previous node.
  9. What is a queue?
  10. What is a stack data structure?
  11. What is a graph?
  12. What is a priority queue?
  13. What is the time complexity of  linked list insertion?

Content will be added soon

Generally the interviewer may or may not be from your branch so he will ask questions from Google about your branch.

Mostly, the interviewer tries to stick to C/OOPS or coding questions but some interviewers depending on their personal choice may ask you your branch specific questions –

How shear forces are incurred in fluid flow ?

Answer: Shear forces between fluid particles and boundary walls and between the fluid particles themselves, result from the viscosity of the real fluid.

2. In laminar flow, how discharge is related to viscosity ?

Answer: Discharge varies inversely as viscosity.

3. What is best hydraulic section ?

Answer: Best hydraulic section is one in which for a given cross-section area, the channel section has least wetted perimeter.

4. What is best hydraulic trapezoidal section ?

Answer: It is a half-hexagon in shape.

5. What is specific energy in a channel section ?

Answer: It is defined as the energy head measured with respect to the channel bottom at the sec¬tion. At any section, it is equal to sum of the velocity head and the water depth at the section.

6. What is critical depth and critical flow ?

Answer: Critical depth is the depth, at which the discharge may be delivered through the section at minimum energy.

Critical flow is the flow in open channel corresponding to critical depth.

7. What causes boundary layer separation ?

Answer: An adverse pressure gradient.

8. What is the improtance of Nose radius ?

Answer: Nose radius is favourable to long tool life and good surface finish. A sharp point on the end of a tool is highly stressed, short lived and leaves a groove in the path of cut.

9. At what point below free surface in a uniform laminar flow in a channel the point velocity is equal to mean velocity of flow ?

Answer: At 0.577 depth of channel.

10. What is the value of friction factor for smooth pile when Reynolds number is approximately = 10G ?

Answer: 0.01.

11. How hydraulic grade line and free surface of open channel flow related ?

Answer: They coincide.

12.What are the first and last elements of tool signatures ?

Answer: Back rake angle and nose radius.

14. What is open channel flow ? Explain 4 types of open channel flows.

Answer: Open channel flow has a free water surface which is normally subject to the atmospheric pressure.

Steady open channel flow : In this case the discharge and water depth at any section in the reach do not change with time during the period of interest.

Unsteady open channel flow : In this case the discharge and the water depth at any section in the reach change with time.

Uniform open channel flow : In this case the discharge and the water depth remain the same in energy section in the channel reach. It is mostly steady.

Varied open channel {low : In this case the water depth and/or the discharge change along the length of the channel. It may be steady (such as flow over a spillway crest) or unstgeady (as in the case of flood waves or tidal surge).

15. When does wake occur ?

Answer: It occurs after a separation point.

16. In straight polarity, to which terminal the electrode is connected ?

Answer: Negative.

17. What is hydraulic radius ?

Answer: It is the ratio of fluid flow area/shear perimeter.

18. Define flow work.

Answer: Flow work is the amount of mechanical energy required to push or force a flowing fluid across a section boundary.

19. What do you understand by dimensional analysis ?

Answer: Dimensional analysis is the mathematics of dimensions and quantities and provides procedural techniques whereby the variables that are assumed to be significant in a problem can be formed into dimensionless parameters, the number of parameters being less than the number of variables.

20. What is hydraulic depth for open channel flow ?

Answer: It is the ratio of area and the top width of the channel section.

21. Which welding set will you select for welding both ferrous and non ferrous materials.

Answer: D.C. generator set.

22. Which welding process is a combination of arc welding and gas welding processes?

Answer: Atomic hydrogen welding.

23. What is hydraulic jump ?

Answer: It is a natural phenomenon in open channel. It is an abrupt reduction in flow velocity by means of a sudden increase of water depth in the down stream direction. Through a hydraulic jump, and high-velocity supercritical flow is changed to a low-velocity subcritical flow.

24. What is gradually varied flow ?

Answer: The changes in water depth in the open channel take place very gradually with distance. Depending on the channel slope, the surface conditions, the sectional geometry, and the discharge, these may be classified into five categories : steep channel, critical channel, mild channel, horizontal channel, and adverse channel.

25. Explain 5 types of channels.

Answer: Steep channel : In this case normal depth < critical depth. Critical channel : In this case normal depth = critical depth. Mild channel : In this case, normal depth > critical depth.

Adverse channel : In this case, the slope of channel bed < 0

Horizontal channel : In this case, the slope of channel bed = 0.

26. Mention two major differences between shaper and planer ?

Answer: Shaper Planer

(a) The cutting tool reciprocates (a) Work reciprocates

(b) The work is stationary (b) Tool is stationary

(c) Meant for small work pieces (c) Meant for large work pieces

(d) Only lighter cut can be taken (d) Heavy cuts can be taken

(e) Tools are smaller in size (e) Tools are bigger in size

27. Differentiate between drilling and reaming ?

Answer: Drilling Reaming

(a) It is the operation of initiating hole (a) Reaming is the operation of finishing and

sizing a drilled/bored hole

(b) It can be done at relatively high speeds (b) It should be done only at slow speeds

(c) Larger chips are produced (c) Less chips are produced

(d) Drill has only two flutes (d) Reamer has more than 4 flutes

(e) Drill has chisel edge (e) Reamer has a bevel edge

28. What is similarity between normal shock wave and hydraulic jump ?

Answer: Both are analogous and irreversible.

29. For what purpose chills are used in moulds ?

Answer: Chills are used to achieve directional solidification.

30. What is tumbler gear mechanism ?

Answer: Tumbler gear mechanism is a mechanism consisting of number of different sized gears keyed to the driving shaft in the form of cone and is used to give the desired direction of motion of the lathe spindle.

31. What is relative roughness of pipe ?

Answer: It is the ratio of the size of the surface imperfections to the inside diameter of the pipe.

32. What is conicity ?

Answer: The ratio of the difference in diameter of the taper to its length is termed conicity.

33. Under what condition the effect of compressibility of fluid can be neglected ?

Answer: When Mach number is less than 0.4.

34. For which type of flow the velocity distribution in a pipe is parabolic.

Answer: For uniform laminar flow.

35. What is the relationship between center line velocity and average velocity for a laminar flow in a pipe ?

Answer: Average velocity = 1/2 centre line velocity.

36. On which factor the friction factor for a smooth pipe in turbulent flow depends ?

Answer: Reynolds number.

37. What do you understand by pipe branchings ?

Answer: When water is brought by pipes to a junction where more than two pipes meet, them the total amount of water brought by pipes to a junction must always be equal to that carried away from the junction by other pipes, and all pipes that meet at the junction must share the same pressure at the junction.

38. What is pipe networks and what are the condition for network ?

Answer: Pipe network comprises a number of pipes connected together to form loops and branches. For a network,

(i) at any junction, Y.Q = 0 and

(ii) between any two junctions the total head loss is independent of the path taken.

39. What is Hardy-Cross Method ?

Answer: It is a commonly used computer program for a pipe network.

40. Explain water hammer.

Answer: The force resulting from changing the speed of the water mass (say in a pipe due to sudden change of flow rate) may cause a pressure rise in the pipe with a magnitude several times greater

than the normal static pressure in the pipe. Pressure head caused by water hammer = C (V – velocity in pipe, C = celerity).

41. What happens to impurities in centrifugal casting ?

Answer: They get collected at the center of the casting.

42. Define the terms hydraulic similitude and dimensional analysis.

Answer: Hydraulic similitude is the principle on which the model studies are based.

Dimensional analysis is the analysis of the basic relationship of the various physical quantities involved in the static and dynamic behaviors of water flow in a hydraulic structure.

43. Explain the difference between geometric similarity, kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity.

Answer: Geometric similarity : It implies similarity of form. The model is a geometric reduction of the prototype and is accomplished by maintaining a fixed ratio for all homologous lengths between the model and the prototype.

Kinematic similarity : It implies similarity in motion. Kinematic similarity between a model and the prototype is attained if the homologous moving particles have the same velocity ratio along geometrically similar paths. It involves the scale of time as well as length.

Dynamic similarity : It implies similarity in forces involved in motion.

44. Define Reynolds law ?

Answer: When the inertial force and the viscous force are considered to be the only forces governing the motion of the water, the Reynolds number of the model and the prototype must be kept at the same value.

45. When a built up edge is formed while machining ?

Answer: While machining ductile materials at high speed.

46. On what factor the friction factor for a rough pipe in turbulent flow depends ?

Answer: Relative roughness.

47. What is unit power of a turbine ?

Answer: PHP12.

48. How cavitation causes damage ?

Answer: In a a closed system (pipelines, or pumps), water vaporises rapidly in regions where the pressure drops below the vapour pressure. This phenomenon is called cavitation. The vapour bubbles formed in cavitation usually collapse in a violent manner, which may cause considerable damage to the system.

49. In milling process, how the arbor torque can be smoothend ?

Answer: Arbor torque can be smoothened by increasing number of teeth, using higher spiral angle of teeth, using higher cutting depth.

49. What are webs in a twist drill ?

Answer: Webs are the metal column in the drill which separates the flutes.

50. What is bluff body ?

Answer: It is a body with such shape that the flow is separated much ahead of its rear end resulting in a large wake, the pressure drag being much greater than the friction drag.

51. What is bulk modulus ?

Answer: It is the ratio of hydrostatic stress to volumetric strain within the elastic limits.

52. Define boundary layer.

Answer: It is the fluid layer in the neighborhood of a solid boundary where the effects of fluid friction are predominant.

53. What is creep flow ?

Answer: It is flow at very low Reynolds number where viscous forces are larger than the inertia forces.

54. What is Torricellis theorem ?

Answer: According to it velocity of jet flowing out of a small opening is proportional to the square root of head of liquid above it.

55. How does cavitation manifest itself in a centrifugal pump ?

Answer: Usual symptoms of cavitation of pump are noise, vibration, a drop in head and capacity with a decrease in efficiency, accompanied by pitting and corrosion of the impeller vanes.

56. What happens if centrifugal pump is operated at excessive speeds ?

Answer: When a pump is operated at excessive speeds, the differential pressure developed increases and causes a powerful pulsating vacuum on the underside of the blade tips and each particle of water is pulled away from the blade, taking away with it a small particle of metal, producing pitting/grooved effect. Repeated erosive action results in complete honey combing and total destruction of blade, with resultant loss in pump performance.

57. On what parameters the head developed by a centrifugal pump depends ?

Answer: It depends upon the impeller diameter and its rotative speed.

58. Which factors determine the selection of electrolyte for electrochemical machining process ?

Answer: Electrolyte should be chemically stable and have high electrical conductivity.

59. What is the disadvantages of centrifugal pump having very low specific speed ?

Answer: For a.centrifugal pump having very low specific speed, the impeller diameter is large and narrow having excessively high disc friction and excessive hydraulic losses.

60. On what factors the efficiency of pump depends ?

Answer: Efficiency of a pump (centrifugal) depends on the size, speed, and proportions of the impeller and casing.

61. On what factors the cavitation in centrifugal pumps is dependent ?

Answer: Cavitation in centrifugal pumps depends on the velocity of water entering tne impeller and on the relatiave velocity of the impeller blades where the water is picked up.

62. What are the losses in a centrifugal pump ?

Answer: The losses in a centrifugal pump are : Friction losses due to eddies in flow, leakage, friction loss due to rotation of impeller in chamber of water, gland and bearing power losses.

63. What should be done to avoid cavitation in pumps ?

Answer: In order to avoid cavitation, the suction lift and the operating speed must be carefully chosen.

64. What will happen if speed of reciprocating pump is increased ?

Answer: If speed of a reciprocating pump is increased beyond a limit, then atmospheric pressure would be insufficient to force water into the pump at the same speed as the piston. This would a break in the continuity of the water in suction pipe (cavitation) and give rise to vibration, noise, and chemical attack by any dissolved gases which may be released from the water owing to the high vacuum and the breaking of the water column.

65. What is the order of efficiency of cenetrifugal and reciprocating pumps ?

Answer: The efficiency of centrifugal pump is of the order of 45% whereas that of reciprocting pump is around %.

66. What are the basic operations performed in a slotter ?

Answer: The different operations done in slotter are :

1. Machining grooves

2. Machining cylindrical surface

3. Machining irregular profiles.

67. How the positive displacement is obtained in rotary pumps ?

Answer: Positive displacement in rotary pumps is achieved in two ways :

(i) A rotor carries radially adjustable vanes, the outer tips of which are constrained by a circular casing, whose centre is remote from that of the rotor.

(ii) Various combinations of gears, lobes, helices, etc. within a casing arranged so that the lobes or teeth attached to each rotor pass in sequence through the same pumping space.

68. How a slotter differs from shaper ?

Answer: Slotter Shaper

(a) Ram reciprocates vertically (a) Ram reciprocates horizontally

(b) It has a circular table (b) It has a rectangular table

(c) Suited for machining internal surfaces (c) Suited for machining external surfaces

(d) Table can take less load (d) Table can take much load

69. Under what condition the flow and power of pump vary as square of the size ?

Answer: The flow and power vary as size2 when the geometric size changes as inverse of change of speed.

70. How the incidence of cavitation detected ?

Answer: The incidence of cavitation is detected by the following in order of appearance.

(i) stroboscopic observation of bubble appearance and size

(ii) sensitive acoustic tests of cavitation noise

(iii) reduction of efficiency and/or head of 3%.

71. How cavitation erosion is assessed ?

Answer: Cavitation erosion is assessed by depth of attack or weight of metal removed.

72. At which temperature the cavitation erosion is negligible and why ?

Answer: Cavitation erosion is negligible at above 300°C because the water and steam have same densities at critical temperature of 374°C and thus there is no volume change or bubble collapse in the vicinity of this range.

73. What is an arbor ?

Answer: An arbor is an accurately machined shaft for holding and driving the arbor type cutter. It is tapered at one end to fit the spindle nose and has two slots to fit the nose keys for locating and driving it.

74. For a body to float in stable equilibrium where the e.g. should be located w.r.t. metacentre ?

Answer: e.g. should be below metacentre.

75. What is the condition for a flow to be fully developed through a pipe ?

Answer: Ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity should be 2.

76. When a fluid is moving with uniform velocity, whether the pressure of fluid will depend on its depth and orientation ?

Answer: No.

77. How much is the vertical component of force on a curved surface submerged in a static liquid ?

Answer: It is equal to weight of the liquid above the curved surface.

78. On which factors depends the friction factor in a rough turbulent flow in a pipe?

Answer: It depends on pipe diameter and the condition of the pipe.

79. What does the realisation of velocity potential in fluid flow indicate ?

Answer: It indicates that flow is irrotational.

80. What is the difference between potential flow and creep flow ?

Answer: Potential flow assumes viscous forces to be zero but same is considered larger than inertia forces in creep flow.

81. For which application Mach number and Froude numbers are significant ?

Answer: Mach no. is significant in the study of projectiles and jet propulsion. Froude number is significant in the study of ship hulls.

82. What is the difference between geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarities between model and prototype ?

Answer: Geometric similarity is mainly for same shape for model and prototype, kinematic similarity is concerned with stream line pattern, whereas dynamic similarity concerns the ratio of forces.

83. A body is floating in water. If it is displaced slightly then about which point it will oscillate.

Answer: It will oscillate about centre of buoyancy.

84. Why uniform ramming is considered desirable in green sand moulding process ?

Answer: Uniform ramming results in greater dimensional stability of a casting.

85. On what account the friction drag is experienced ?

Answer: Friction drag is experienced on separation of boundary layer.

86. What is the characteristic of centrifugally cast components ?

Answer: These have fine grain structure with high density.

87, Under what condition the separation of flow occurs ?

Answer: When pressure gradient changes abruptly.

88. What is the criterion for shaping of streamlined body ?

Answer: It is shaped to suppress the flow separation about the body and to shift the boundary layer separation to near most part of body to reduce the wake size.

89. What do you understand by entrance length and what is its value for turbulent flow in smooth pipe ?

Answer: Entrance length of flow is the initial length in which the flow develops fully such that the velocity profile remains unchanged downstream. For turbulent flow in smooth pipe, entrance length is taken as 50 x diameter of pipe.

90. Explain the difference between friction drag and pressure drag.

Answer: Friction drag is the drag force exerted by a fluid on the surface due to friction action when

the flow occurs past a flat surface at zero incidence. Pressure drag is the additional drag force on

account of the differences of pressure over the body surface when flow occurs past a surface which is

not everywhere parallel to the fluid stream. Pressure drag depends upon separation of bondary layer

and the size of wake. Friction drag is due to shear stresses generated due to viscous action.

91. What do you understand by choking in pipe line ?

Answer: When specified mass flow is not able to take place in a pipe line.

92. What is the difference between streamline body and bluff body ?

Answer: In streamline body the shape is such that separation in flow occurs past the nearmost part of the body so that wake formed is small and thus friction drag is much greater than pressure drag. In bluff body the flow gets separated much ahead of its rear resulting in large wake and thus pressure drag is much greater than the friction drag.

93. What is the difference between dressing and trueing of a grinding wheel ?

Answer: Dressing is the process used to clear the cutting surface of the grinding wheel of any dull grits and embedded swarf in order to improve the cutting action. Trueing is the process employed to bring the wheel to the required geometric shop and also to restore the cutting action of a worn wheel.

94. Whether hard grade or softer grade is required for internal grinding than external grinding?

Answer: Softer graders of wheel are required for internal grinding than for external grinding.

95. How is the velocity profile and stress distribution due to laminar flow of an incompressible flow under steady conditions in a circular pipe.

Answer: Velocity profile is parabolic with zero velocity at boundary and maximum at the centre. Shear stress distribution is linear, being maximum at boundary and zero at centre.

96. Where the maximum velocity occurs in open channels ?

Answer: Near the channel bottom.

97. Define hydraulically efficient channel cross section.

Answer: The shape of such section is that which produces minimum wetted perimeter for a given area of flow and carries maximum flow.

9. What is follower rest ?

Ans .For slender work a travelling or follower rest is used. This fits on the lathe – saddle and travels to and fro with it. By this means support is constantly provided at the position of cut. Thus the work piece being turn is rigidly held against the tool.

99. What is the meaning of the term sensitive drill press ?

Answer: A sensitive drilling press is a light, simple, bench type machine for light duty working with infinite speed ratio.

100. Why carburised machine components have high endurance limit ?

Answer: In carburised machine components, the process of carburisation introduces a compressive layer on the surface and thus endurance limit is increased.

Will be added soon

  • Do you have any questions for us?
  • Would you like some chocolates?
  • Send the next student inside the room.
  1. Define software engineering
    1. According to IEEE, Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of sofware.
  2. What are the categories of software?
    1. System software Application software Embedded software Web Applications Artificial Intelligence software Scientific software.
  3. Define testing?
    1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding of an error. 4. What is white box testing? White box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. It is otherwise called as structural testing.
  4. What is Black box testing
    1. Black box testing is a test case design method that focuses on the functional requirements of the software. It is otherwise called as functional testing.
  5. How spiral model works?
    1. The spiral model is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the waterfall lifecycle model.
      It also has an emphasis on the use of risk management techniques.
  6. What is SDLC ?
    1. A software cycle deals with various parts and phases from planning to testing and deploying. All these activities are carried out in different ways, as per the needs. Each way is known as a Software Development Lifecycle Model (SDLC).
  7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of white box testing?
    1. Advantages :
      Software’s structure logic can be tested.
    2. Disadvantages :
      Doesn’t ensure that user requirements are met.
      Its test may not mimic real world situations
  8. What is meant by smoke testing?
    1. Smoke testing is an integration testing approach that is commonly used ehen “shrink wrapped ” software products are being developed.
  9. What is alpha and beta tests?
    1. Alpha test is the test that is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer. Beta test is the test that is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software.
  10. What is waterFall model?
    1. Waterfall SDLC Model
      Waterfall – is a cascade SDLC model, in which development process looks like the flow, moving step by step through the phases of analysis, projecting, realization, testing, implementation, and support. This SDLC model includes gradual execution of every stage completely. This process is strictly documented and predefined with features expected to every phase of this software development life cycle model.
    2. Cognizant technical Interview most asked questions
      Simple to use and understandThe software is ready only after the last stage is over
      Management simplicity thanks to its rigidity: every phase has a defined result and process reviewHigh risks and uncertainty
      Development stages go one by oneNot the best choice for complex and object-oriented projects
      Perfect for the small or mid-sized projects where requirements are clear and not equivocalInappropriate for the long-term projects
      Easy to determine the key points in the development cycleThe progress of the stage is hard to measure while it is still in the development
      Easy to classify and prioritize tasks

      Integration is done at the very end, which does not give the option of identifying the problem in advan


  11. What is spiral model in SDLC?
    1. Spiral model – is SDLC model, which combines architecture and prototyping by stages. It is a combination of the Iterative and Waterfall SDLC models with the significant accent on the risk analysis. The main issue of the spiral model – is defining the right moment to make a step into the next stage. The preliminary set time frames are recommended as the solution to this issue. The shift to the next stage is done according to the plan, even if the work on the previous stage isn’t done yet. The plan is introduced basing on the statistic data, received during the previous projects even from the personal developer’s experience.
    2. Spiral SDLC

      Lifecycle is divided into small parts, and if the risk concentration is higher, the phase can be finished earlier to address the treats

      Can be quite expensive
      The development process is precisely documented yet scalable to the changesThe risk control demands involvement of the highly-skilled professionals
      The scalability allows to make changes and add new functionality even at the relatively late stagesCan be ineffective for the small projects
      The earlier working prototype is done – sooner users can point out the flaws

      Big number of the intermediate stages requires excessive documentation

  12. What is Agile model?
    1. In the agile methodology after every development iteration, the customer is able to see the result and understand if he is satisfied with it or he is not. This is one of the advantages of the agile software development life cycle model. One of its disadvantages is that with the absence of defined requirements it is difficult to estimate the resources and development cost. Extreme programming is one of the practical use of the agile model. The basis of such model consists of short weekly meetings – Sprints which are the part of the Scrum approach.
    2. agile sdlc
      Corrections of functional requirements are implemented into the development process to provide the competitivenessDifficulties with measuring the final cost because of permanent changes
      Project is divided by short and transparent iterationsThe team should be highly professional and client-oriented
      Risks are minimized thanks to the flexible change processNew requirements may conflict with the existing architecture
      Fast release of the first product versionWith all the corrections and changes there is possibility that the project will exceed expected time
  • What is a job queue?
  • What is a ready queue?
  • What is a device queue?
  • What is a long term scheduler & short term schedulers?
  • What is context switching?
  • What is process synchronization?
  • What is critical section problem?
  • What is a semaphore?
  • What are deadlock prevention techniques?
  • Distributed Systems?
  • Define Demand Paging, Page fault interrupt, and Trashing?
  • What is starvation and aging?
  1. What is DBMS ?
    1. The database management system is a collection of programs that enables user to store, retrieve, update and delete information from a database.
  2. What is RDBMS ?
    1. Relational Database Management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. Data from relational database can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. Data from relational database can be accessed using an API , Structured Query Language (SQL).
  3. What is SQL ?
    1. Structured Query Language(SQL) is a language designed specifically for communicating with databases. SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard.
  4. What are the different type of SQL’s statements?
    1. This is one of the most frequently asked SQL Interview Questions for freshers. SQL statements are broadly classified into three. They are –
      1. DDL – Data Definition Language DDL is used to define the structure that holds the data. For example, Create, Alter, Drop and Truncate table.
      2. DML – Data Manipulation Language DML is used for manipulation of the data itself. Typical operations are Insert, Delete, Update and retrieving the data from the table. The Select statement is considered as a limited version of the DML, since it can’t change the data in the database. But it can perform operations on data retrieved from the DBMS, before the results are returned to the calling function.
      3. DCL – Data Control Language DCL is used to control the visibility of data like granting database access and set privileges to create tables, etc. Example – Grant, Revoke access permission to the user to access data in the database.
  5. What is a Record in a database?
    1. A record is the collection of values / fields of a specific entity: i.e. an Employee, Salary etc.
  6. What is a Table in a database?
    1. A table is a collection of records of a specific type. For example, employee table, salary table etc.
  7. What is a database transaction?
    1. Database transaction takes database from one consistent state to another. At the end of the transaction the system must be in the prior state if the transaction fails or the status of the system should reflect the successful completion if the transaction goes through.
  8. What are properties of a transaction?
    1. Properties of the transaction can be summarized as ACID Properties.
      1. Atomicity – A transaction consists of many steps. When all the steps in a transaction get completed, it will get reflected in DB or if any step fails, all the transactions are rolled back.
      2. Consistency – The database will move from one consistent state to another, if the transaction succeeds and remain in the original state, if the transaction fails.
      3. Isolation – Every transaction should operate as if it is the only transaction in the system.
      4. Durability – Once a transaction has completed successfully, the updated rows/records must be available for all other transactions on a permanent basis.
  9. What are the different type of normalization?
    1. In database design, we start with one single table, with all possible columns. A lot of redundant data would be present since it’s a single table. The process of removing the redundant data, by splitting up the table in a well defined fashion is called normalization.
      1. First Normal Form (1NF) A relation is said to be in first normal form if and only if all underlying domains contain atomic values only. After 1NF, we can still have redundant data.
      2. Second Normal Form (2NF) A relation is said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non key attribute is fully dependent on the primary key. After 2NF, we can still have redundant data.
      3. Third Normal Form (3NF) A relation is said to be in 3NF, if and only if it is in 2NF and every non key attribute is non-transitively dependent on the primary key.
  10. What is a primary key?
    1. A primary key is a column whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. Primary key values can never be reused. If a row is deleted from the table, its primary key may not be assigned to any new rows in the future. To define a field as primary key, following conditions had to be met :
      1. No two rows can have the same primary key value.
      2. Every row must have a primary key value.
      3. The primary key field cannot be null.
      4. Value in a primary key column can never be modified or updated, if any foreign key refers to that primary key.
  11. What is a Composite Key?
    1. A Composite primary key is a type of candidate key, which represents a set of columns whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. For example – if “Employee_ID” and “Employee Name” in a table is combined to uniquely identify a row its called a Composite Key.
  12. What is a Composite Primary Key?
    1. A Composite primary key is a set of columns whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. What it means is that, a table which contains composite primary key will be indexed based on the columns specified in the primary key. This key will be referred in Foreign Key tables. For example – if the combined effect of columns, “Employee_ID” and “Employee Name” in a table is required to uniquely identify a row, its called a Composite Primary Key. In this case, both the columns will be represented as primary key.
  13. What is a Foreign Key?
    1. When a “one” table’s primary key field is added to a related “many” table in order to create the common field which relates the two tables, it is called a foreign key in the “many” table. For example, the salary of an employee is stored in salary table. The relation is established via foreign key column “Employee_ID_Ref” which refers “Employee_ID” field in the Employee table.
  14. What is a Unique Key?
    1. Unique key is same as primary with the difference being the existence of null. Unique key field allows one value as NULL value.

Coding Questions (Most Asked)

  1. Write a c program to reverse any number.
  2. Write a c program to find out sum of digit of given number.
  3. Write a c program to find out power of number.
  4. Write a c program to add two numbers without using addition operator.
  5. Write a c program to subtract two numbers without using subtraction operator.
  6. Write a c program to find largest among three numbers using binary minus operator.
  7. Write a c program to find largest among three numbers using conditional operator
  8. Write a c program to find out generic root of any number.
  9. Write a c program to find out prime factor of given number.
  10. Write a c program to find out NCR factor of given number.
  11. How to convert string to int without using library functions in c
  12. Program in c to print 1 to 100 without using loop
  13. C program for swapping of two numbers
  14. Program to find largest of n numbers in c
  15. Split number into digits in c programming
  16. C program to count number of digits in a number

HR Interview Questions Most AskeD

  1. Introduce Yourself
  2. Why do you want to join Cognizant
  3. How many people work in CTS – Answer Cognizant Wikipedia page
  4. What details do you know about Cognizant? Like CEO, Employee population  , Last year turnover etc etc
  5. Top 5 product based Indian company.
    1. Answer – Zoho, Swiggy, Zomato, Freshdesk, Ola. Don’t say Flipkart, Amazon they are based out of singapore and US as registered office.
  6. How to do prioritise things in your life?
  7. What did you score less in class 12
  8. Why did you score less in CS subjects
  9. Do you like read, What kind of things you read?
  10. Who is the Finance Minister of India
  11. Suppose you have to do any project on a topic which is totally new for you then what resources is going to help you?
  12. Suppose if you will be given a limited time to learn COBOL.then?
  13. What is your short term and Long term goals?
  14. U got job in Bhel and Cognizant,then what do u do?(Mech Student)
  15. Tell me any challenging moment of your life?
  16. How do you work under pressure?
  1. Tell about ur educational background
  2. Tell about joining location preference.
    1. Student should be willing to shift to any city in India. This is a primary requirement. You can tell your preference but you say you’re unwilling to shift any place elsewhere, you will not be selected.
  3. Why were your marks less in B.Tech as compared to your 10th and 12th.?( because mine were :p )
  4. What is new in IT Industry?
    1. Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Mining, Social Media Digital marketting, Drones, Automation, DevOPS etc.
  5. Tell me about yourself
  6. Strength and Weakness
  7. Why should I hire you?
  8. What are the things you expect from CTS?
  9. Extra Curricular Activities
  10. Your family background
  11. Weakness?
  12. Strengths?
  1. Do you know the service agreement policy ?
    1. They are basically asking you about Cognizant Bond period, a period that you will have necessarily work in Cognizant if you join them. This period is about 1 month and you have to pay about 1.5Lakhs if you leave before without serving 1 month notice period.
  2. Interview told me Your employment with CTS is subject to background check do you know that?
  3. Are you comfortable with moving to some other city for job?
  4. Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
  5. Hobbies extra Curricular Activities?
  6. Are you ready to work at any location and during Night Shifts?
  7. How often do you go Home? because you wont be able to go home regularly after joining Cognizant.

One comment on “Coginizant Interview Questions”