Ques. DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS:1-5 Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries. How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were–reptiles or birds-are among the questions scientists have puzzled over. Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane. The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers may have been employed for grasping. When a pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body. The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions. This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is Subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts. Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm blooded because flying implies a high rate of metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal temperature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hair like fossil material was the first clear evidence that his reasoning was correct. Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became airborne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet resembled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings. The third calls for high waves to channel updrafts. The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
- It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the
- Enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled them to fly great distances
- Structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a close evolutionary relationship to bats
- Fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they solved the problem of powered flight
- Pterosaurs were reptiles
- The author views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as
- According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by the
- size of its wingspan
- presence of hollow spaces in its bones
- anatomic origin of its wing strut
- presence of hook like projections on its hind feet
- The ideas attributed to T.H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following –
- An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its ability to master complex behaviors.
- An animal’s appearance is often influenced by environmental requirements and physical capabilities.
- Animals within a given family group are unlikely to change their appearance dramatically over a period of time
- The origin of flight in vertebrates was an accidental development rather than the outcome of specialization or adaptation.ollowing statements?
- It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?
- They were unable to fold their wings when not in use.
- They hung upside down from branches as bats do before flight.
- They flew in order to capture prey.
- They were an early stage in the evolution of the birds.
DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 6-10 Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions. In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness. Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families. Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies. Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labor-market-related hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty. Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support. Since the number experiencing joblessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffers. For every person counted in the monthly unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job. Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in-kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected. As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of thousands or the tens of millions, and, hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus. There is only one area of agreement in this debate—that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
- Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage?
- What causes labor market pathologies that result in suffering?
- Why income measures are imprecise in measuring degrees of poverty?
- Which of the currently used statistical procedures are the best for estimating the incidence of hardship that is due to unemployment
- How social statistics give an unclear picture of the degree of hardship caused by low wages and insufficient employment opportunities?
7 The author uses “labor market problems” to refer to which of the following?
- The overall causes of poverty
- Deficiencies in the training of the work force
- Trade relationships among producers of goods
- Shortages of jobs providing adequate income
8 The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that
- More people were unemployed in the 1930’s
- Unemployment now has less severe effects
- Social programs are more needed now
- There is now a greater proportion of elderly and handicapped people among those in poverty
- Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author?
- Innovative programs using multiple approaches should be set up to reduce the level of unemployment.
- A compromise should be found between the positions of those who view joblessness as an evil greater than economic control and those who hold the opposite view.
- New statistical indices should be developed to measure the degree to which unemployment and inadequately paid employment cause suffering.
- Consideration should be given to the ways in which statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena that they purport to measure.
- The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that
- There are several factors that cause the payment of low wages to some members of the labor forcee
- Unemployment statistics can underestimate the hardship resulting from joblessness
- Recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can exist and can cause hardships for individual workers
- A majority of those who are jobless at any one time to not suffer severe hardship
- Identify the part of a sentence that has an error in it . (a) Although Rajat is inferior (b) than most of us (c) in social status (d) he is a man of great integrity
Than changed to – to
- Identify the part of a sentence that has an error in it . (a)Being the most wealthiest (b) business man in the city (c) he is very well known (d) in social circles.
No most should as superlative, wealthiest
- Identify the part of a sentence that has an error in it . (a)David often bullies (b)his classmates (c) as he is senior than (d)most of them.
Should be to instead of than
DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 14-20 Choose the option that is the best alternative for the underlined phrase in the sentence.
- Dolphins have an array of cognitive abilities that allow them to respond and adapt to new situations in their both physical and social worlds.
- in its both physical and social world
- in their both physical and their social world
- both in their physical and social world
- both in their physical and in their social worlds.
- One who has cultivated the art of reading will instantly discern in a book what ought to be remembered because it meets ones personal needs to be of value as general knowledge.
- it will meet one’s personal needs or of value as general knowledge
- it meets one’s personal needs in addition to being value as general knowledge
- it meets one’s personal needs or is of value as general knowledge
- it meets his personal needs or be of value as general knowledge.
- The environmental impact of organically derived bio diesel substantially is lower than petro diesel.
- is substantially lower than that of petro-diesel.
- substantially lower than petro diesel
- substantially is lower than that of petro diesel.
- substantially lower than that is of petro diesel
- While campus placements at the graduation level are fast emerging as a trend, there are many still who opt to go for higher studies before finally getting started on a career.
- still many who opt for higher studies finally before.
- still many who opt to go in for higher studies before finally
- still many who opt for higher studies before finally
- many who still opt to go for higher studies finally before
- It is only when some institutions are seen to perform better than others and rewarded for it , there will be a move towards better teaching quality all around
better than each other and rewarded for it, that there will be a move
better than each other and are rewarded for it that there will be a move.
better than others and are rewarded for it, that there will be a move.
better than one another and are rewarded for it, there will be a move
- Japanese interests and capabilities are so different than Indian that the two never have tried for competitive influence in Asia.
so much different from India’s that the two have never
so different than India’s that the two never have
such different than India’s that the two never have
such different from that of India that the two have never
- Earthquake result from the eruption of the sub-terranean tectonic plate movements, the forecasting of which can greatly mitigate the misery they cause.
can greatly mitigate the misery they cause
could greatly mitigate the misery they cause
should greatly mitigate the misery they cause.
will greatly mitigate the misery they cause
- DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 21-30
Fill in the blanks with the best alternative. Certain primitive cells found in the brain ,blood and else where in the body remain _____enough even in adult but they might be ___to become a wider variety of tissues.
- One of the more unexplored ,undefined agonies of celebrity life is the sheer ____of it all.
- Such is the ____ of fear that on one hand it is a response so fundamental to survival that we share it with rodents, deers and insects and yet fear and anxiety can ___us ,immobilize us even kill us.
Modernism in architecture was forged in the devastation of Europe after world war I , a place where every kind of authority including ____style was ___by the disaster of the trenches.
- The tale grew in the telling until it became a ____ of the great war and included many glimpses of the yet more ancient history that ___it..
- The members of the parliamentary committee had such strongly ____ views that even after several meetings they could not reach a ____
- Her question had an urgency ___ that an answer but the answer might have been too dreadful to ____
- ______literature or even a/an ____remark can have a pernicious influence on the society that has become a tinder box
- It was supposed to appear that they were discussing ordinary pleasantries , Jack supposed with the added ___that his colleague was enjoying himself
- Nothing could ___the outrage of the blasphemy perpetrated by the proclamations of the self styled god man
DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 31-40 Read the paragraphs given and choose the best option that suits the question asked 31. Bill earns more commission than does Sandra. But since Andrew earns more commission than does Lisa, it follows that Bill earns more commission than does Lisa. Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above logically correct EXCEPT:
Andrew earns more commission than Bill
Sandra earns more commission than Lisa
Sandra earns more commission than Andrew
Sandra and Andrew earn the same amount of commission
- In 2003 an airline in United State lost more than half, on average, of the foreign passengers they had previously served each year. Researchers have alleged that this extreme drop resulted from a rise in price of tickets for international lines from $60 to $90 per 1,000 miles. Which of the following, if feasible, offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in passengers as the researchers assessed it?
Cooperating with other airlines to provide more international lines.
Allowing foreign passengers to pay the same as the previous international line
Reemphasizing the goals and mission of the airline as serving both domestic passengers and foreign passengers
Increasing the financial resources of the airline by raising the ticket price for domestic passengers
- A life insurance company allows people to prepay their endowment insurance at current rates. The policyholder then pays the premium every year. People should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their living after retirement. Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for people NOT to participate in the program?
Peoples are unsure about which insurance company they will choose after retirement.
The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of insurance when they retire.
The annual cost of premium is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living.
Some of the insurance companies are contemplating large increases in premium next year.
- If highways were restricted to cars and only those truck with capacity of less than 8 tons, most the truck traffic would be forced to run outside highway. Such a reduction in the amount of truck traffic would reduce the risk of collision in highway. The conclusion draw in the first sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?
The roads outside highway would be as convenient as highway for most drivers of truck.
Most roads outside highways are not ready to handle truck traffic.
Most trucks that are currently running in highway have a capacity of more than 8 tons.
Cars are at greater risk of becoming involved in collisions than are trucks
- In 1992, 5 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to support the unemployed citizens. In 1998, 8 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to such funds, although that unemployment rate has decreased in 1998 than in 1992. Each of the following, if true, could explain the simultaneous increase in percent of every dollar paid in tax to support the unemployed citizens and decrease in the number of unemployment rate EXCEPT:
On average, each unemployed citizen received more money in 1998 than 1992.
On average, people paid less tax in 1998 than in 1992.
The individuals had paid more tax than did enterprises during this period.
Income before tax has significantly decreased since 1992.
- Stock analyst: “We believe Company A’s stock will appreciate at 35% a year for the next 5 to 7 years. Company A just became the leader in its industry and we expect its sales to grow at 8% a year.” Commentator: “But how can the stock’s price be expected to grow more quickly than the company’s underlying sales?” Which of the following facts would best support the stock analyst?
The company’s expenses will be declining over the next 5 to 10 years.
The company just won a patent on a new product.
Company A’s stock is currently overvalued by a significant amount.
The 5 to 7 year time frame is too long for anyone to accurately forecast.
- Acme brand aspirin claims to be the best headache relief available on the market today. To prove this claim, Acme called 10 people and asked them their thoughts on headache relief products. All 10 of them stated that they unequivocally use Acme brand aspirin on a regular basis and that they believe it to be the best headache relief available on the market today. Which of the following would most weaken this argument?
Acme brand aspirin is highly addictive
The 10 people called were married to the company’s top 10 executives, and they were coached on what to say.
Most people choose to suffer silently through their headaches
This survey was conducted by an independent company.
Ques. Most citizens are very conscientious about observing a law when they can see the reason behind it. For instance, there has been very little need to actively enforce the recently-implemented law that increase2d the penalty for motorists caught leaving a gas station without paying for gas they had pumped into their vehicles. This is because citizens are very conscientious of the high cost of gasoline and they know that stealing gas will only further increase the price of gasoline for everyone. Which of the following statements would the author of this passage be most likely to believe?
The increased penalty alone is a significant motivation for most citizens to obey the law.
There are still too many inconsiderate citizens in the local community.
High gasoline prices can be brought down if everyone does his or her part and pays for the gasoline they use at the pumps.
Society should make an effort to teach citizens the reasons for its laws. People would be more likely to speed on a stretch of deserted highway than to not pay for gasoline.
Ques. Nearly one in three subscribers to Financial Forecaster is a millionaire, and over half are in top management. Shouldn’t you subscribe to Financial Forecaster now? A reader who is neither a millionaire nor in top management would be most likely to act in accordance with the advertisement’s suggestion if he or she drew which of the following questionable conclusions invited by the advertisement?
Among finance-related periodicals, Financial Forecaster provides the most detailed financial information.
Top managers cannot do their jobs properly without reading Financial Forecaster.
The advertisement is placed where those who will be likely to read it are millionaires.
The subscribers mentioned were helped to become millionaires or join top management by reading Financial Forecaster
Ques. Contrary to the charges made by some of its opponents, the provisions of the new deficit-reduction law for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget are justified. Opponents should remember that the New Deal pulled this country out of great economic troubles even though some of its programs were later found to be unconstitutional. The author’s method of attacking the charges of certain opponents of the new deficit-reduction law is to
- attack the character of the opponents rather than their claim
- imply an analogy between the law and some New Deal programs
- point out that the opponents’ claims imply a dilemma
- show that the opponents’ reasoning leads to an absurd conclusion