Ques. Find winner of an election where votes are represented as candidate names Given an array of names of candidates in an election. A candidate name in array represents a vote casted to the candidate. Print the name of candidates received Max vote. If there is tie, print lexicographically smaller name. A simple solution is to run two loops and count occurrences of every word. Time complexity of this solution is O(n * n * MAX_WORD_LEN). An efficient solution is to use Hashing. We insert all votes in a hash map and keep track of counts of different names. Finally we traverse the map and print the person with maximum votes.
// Java program to find winner in an election.
import java.util.*;
public class ElectoralVotingBallot
{
    /* We have four Candidates with name as 'John',
      'Johnny', 'jamie', 'jackie'.
       The votes in String array are as per the
       votes casted. Print the name of candidates
       received Max vote. */
    public static void findWinner(String votes[])
    {
        // Insert all votes in a hashmap
        Map<String,Integer> map =
                    new HashMap<String, Integer>();
        for (String str : votes)
        {
            if (map.keySet().contains(str))
                map.put(str, map.get(str) + 1);
            else
                map.put(str, 1);
        }
        // Traverse through map to find the candidate
        // with maximum votes.
        int maxValueInMap = 0;
        String winner = "";
        Map.Entry<String,Integer> entry;
        for (entry : map.entrySet())
        {
            String key  = entry.getKey();
            Integer val = entry.getValue();
            if (val > maxValueInMap)
            {
                maxValueInMap = val;
                winner = key;
            }
            // If there is a tie, pick lexicographically
            // smaller.
            else if (val == maxValueInMap &&
                winner.compareTo(key) > 0)
                winner = key;
        }
        System.out.println("Winning Candidate is :" +
                                              winner);
    }
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
       String[] votes = { "john", "johnny", "jackie",
                         "johnny", "john", "jackie",
                         "jamie", "jamie", "john",
                         "johnny", "jamie", "johnny",
                         "john" };
       findWinner(votes);
    }
}
Output:
John