CTS Technical Interview Questions for Freshers

There is a lot of confusion about Cognizant Technical Interview Questions and Process. Since, they change the process every year. On this page you will find the most updated Information, questions and process for CTS Technical Interview Questions.

Infact, in 2017 95% of the people who are working in Cognizant had prepared from PrepInsta. Yes, you heard it right 95%.

CTS Technical interview questions for freshers 2018

Process for Grade A vs Grade B/C college

Cognizant has different interview process for Grad A colleges like VIT, Manipal, PESIT etc and different process for Grade B/C colleges which are not in the top 30 colleges of India.

  • Grade A colleges
    • Written Round + HR Interview ~ Results
  • Grade B college
    • Written Round + Technical and Coding Interview + HR Interview ~ Results

If applying for off Campus drive then doesn’t matter which Grade college yours is, Technical Interview Round will be there.

Process for CS-IT v/s non CS-IT

For CS-IT Students questions will be asked from following topics –

  • C Theory/Programs
  • C++ or Java
  • OOPS
  • Software Engineering
  • Final year Project
  • Optional – DBMS, Operating Systems, Data Structures

HR gives strict instructions to interviewers to stick to the above topics.

Optional – The interviewer will ask you if you know about these topics and only then he will ask you questions from this. A general way of asking is –

What is your favourite subject or Which subject did you recently study. Now, if only you say any of these topics then only interviewer will ask questions form those.

For non CS-IT students questions will be asked from following

  • Basic C Theory/Programs
  • C++ or Java
  • OOPS
  • Final Year Project
  • Optional Topic

Optional – The interviewer(who may not be from same branch as yours) will ask you. Your favourite topic or recently revised subject and will ask questions from that subject.

CTS Vs other Mass hiring Companies Interview Process Comparison

  1. Technical
    1. CTS Interviewer will try to keep the Technical Round to basic C programming Codes(Find on CTS Coding Interview Dashboard), Basic theory and definitions and Focus more on your English.
    2. Other companies like TCS and Tech Mahindra will not focus more on English speaking but your technical skills
  2. Duration of Interview
    1. While in Accenture and CTS the duration of Interview is around 15 – 20 mins
    2. For TCS it ranges anywhere between 30 mins to 45 mins, for Tech Mahindra it may be an hour or more.
  3. Coding Questions
    1. Companies like Accenture and Deloitte don’t ask coding questions at all
    2. But, Cognizant, TCS, Wipro will ask you coding questions like Palindrome, pattern printing etc even if you’re from Non CS IT round.
  4. C / OOPS Questions
    1. Cognizant will necessarily ask some basic C / OOPS concept to all Branches. Well, you’re applying to an IT company they expect you to know a little about C / OOPS theory.
    2. Companies like Accenture, Deloitte don’t ask C / OOPS concept. But, their training is very difficult, so even if you get selected. You need to learn all about coding and technical aspects
  5. Freedom of Topic Selection
    1. All bulk companies, including Cognizant, give freedom of topic selection to you, generally the interviewer will ask you the favourite subject and will ask questions from that, or will ask you the questions from topics, chapters and projects mentioned in your Resume.

The following are trends in CTS Interview –

  1. They always keep chocolates in the room and offer them to students
  2. Always ask student
    1. How was your day
    2. Tell me about yourself(even in technical round)
  3. Try to make student comfortable if he/she is nervous
  4. Ask about bad scores in graduations, 10th or 12th

CTS asks interviewer to fill the interview feedback in 5 categories

  1. Strongly disagree
  2. Disagree
  3. Average
  4. Agree
  5. Strongly Agree

They will check mark one option from above for the following questions –


  1. Candidate has positive attitude towards learning
  2. Candidate is good at coding abilities
  3. Candidate has high potential to pick up a technology and expertise it, given he is provided with training
  4. Candidate has good proficiency in his core branch subjects
  5. Candidate is able to make cross arguments in professional English
  • What is a pointer?
  • What is a dangling pointer?
  • What is a data type?
  • What is size of integer data type?
  • What is the size of char data type?
  • What is the size of unsigned char?
  • What is the size of signed char?
  • What is the size of long?
  • What is the size of short?
  • What is the range of integer data type in C?
  • What is the size of float data type?
  • What is malloc?
  • What is the difference between do while and for loop?
  • What is a string?
  • /0 in string?
  • What is recursion?
  • What is printf?
  • What is math.h?
  • What is the argument of a function?
  • What is assignment operator in C?
  • What is the relational operator in C?
  • What is the logical operator in C?
  • What is the bitwise operator in C?
  • What are all decision control statements in C?
  • What are all loop control statements in C?
  • What is the difference between while and do-while loops in C?
  • What is the difference between single equal “=” and double equal “==” operators in C?
  • What is the difference between pre increment operator and post increment operator?
  • What is the difference between pre decrement operator and post decrement operator?
  • What is “&” and “*” operators in C?

If student says he knows Java

  1. Difference between C++ and Java?


  1. What are virtual Functions?
  2. What is overloading?
  3. What is overriding?
  4. What is polymorphism?
  5. What is data abstraction?
  6. What is encapsulation?
  7. What is inheritance?
  8. What is constructor?
  9. What is destructor?
  10. Abstract Classes vs Interfaces
  11. How to implement Multiple Inheritance in C++?
  12. What are the Features of OOPS?
  13. How to use this keyword?
  14. What is static keyword?
  15. What is a class?
  16. What is difference between struct and object?
  17. What is an object?
  18. What is friend function?
  19. What are access modifiers?
  20. Difference between private and protected?
  21. What is keyword Auto for?
  1. What is a Data Structure?
  2. What is Linked lists?
  3. Is array of data structure?
  4. Define a binary search Tree?
  5. What is a binary Tree?
    1. A binary tree is one type of data structure that has two nodes, a left node, and a right node. In programming, binary trees are an extension of the linked list structures.
  6. What is difference between Push and Pop?
    1. Pushing and popping applies to the way data is stored and retrieved in a stack. A push denotes data being added to it, meaning data is being “pushed” into the stack. On the other hand, a pop denotes data retrieval, and in particular, refers to the topmost data being accessed.
  7. What is the difference between a stack and array?
    1. Stack follows a LIFO pattern. It means that data access follows a sequence wherein the last data to be stored when the first one to be extracted. Arrays, on the other hand, does not follow a particular order and instead can be accessed by referring to the indexed element within the array.
  8. What is a doubly linked Lists?
    1. Doubly linked lists are a special type of linked list wherein traversal across the data elements can be done in both directions. This is made possible by having two links in every node, one that links to the next node and another one that connects to the previous node.
  9. What is a queue?
  10. What is a stack data structure?
  11. What is a graph?
  12. What is a priority queue?
  13. What is the time complexity of  linked list insertion?
Tab Content
Tab Content
  • Do you have any questions for us?
  • Would you like some chocolates?
  • Send the next student inside the room.
  1. Define software engineering
    1. According to IEEE, Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of sofware.
  2. What are the categories of software?
    1. System software Application software Embedded software Web Applications Artificial Intelligence software Scientific software.
  3. Define testing?
    1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding of an error. 4. What is white box testing? White box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. It is otherwise called as structural testing.
  4. What is Black box testing
    1. Black box testing is a test case design method that focuses on the functional requirements of the software. It is otherwise called as functional testing.
  5. How spiral model works?
    1. The spiral model is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the waterfall lifecycle model.
      It also has an emphasis on the use of risk management techniques.
  6. What is SDLC ?
    1. A software cycle deals with various parts and phases from planning to testing and deploying. All these activities are carried out in different ways, as per the needs. Each way is known as a Software Development Lifecycle Model (SDLC).
  7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of white box testing?
    1. Advantages :
      Software’s structure logic can be tested.
    2. Disadvantages :
      Doesn’t ensure that user requirements are met.
      Its test may not mimic real world situations
  8. What is meant by smoke testing?
    1. Smoke testing is an integration testing approach that is commonly used ehen “shrink wrapped ” software products are being developed.
  9. What is alpha and beta tests?
    1. Alpha test is the test that is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer. Beta test is the test that is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software.
  10. What is waterFall model?
    1. Waterfall SDLC Model
      Waterfall – is a cascade SDLC model, in which development process looks like the flow, moving step by step through the phases of analysis, projecting, realization, testing, implementation, and support. This SDLC model includes gradual execution of every stage completely. This process is strictly documented and predefined with features expected to every phase of this software development life cycle model.
    2. Cognizant technical Interview most asked questions
      Simple to use and understandThe software is ready only after the last stage is over
      Management simplicity thanks to its rigidity: every phase has a defined result and process reviewHigh risks and uncertainty
      Development stages go one by oneNot the best choice for complex and object-oriented projects
      Perfect for the small or mid-sized projects where requirements are clear and not equivocalInappropriate for the long-term projects
      Easy to determine the key points in the development cycleThe progress of the stage is hard to measure while it is still in the development
      Easy to classify and prioritize tasks

      Integration is done at the very end, which does not give the option of identifying the problem in advan


  11. What is spiral model in SDLC?
    1. Spiral model – is SDLC model, which combines architecture and prototyping by stages. It is a combination of the Iterative and Waterfall SDLC models with the significant accent on the risk analysis. The main issue of the spiral model – is defining the right moment to make a step into the next stage. The preliminary set time frames are recommended as the solution to this issue. The shift to the next stage is done according to the plan, even if the work on the previous stage isn’t done yet. The plan is introduced basing on the statistic data, received during the previous projects even from the personal developer’s experience.
    2. Spiral SDLC

      Lifecycle is divided into small parts, and if the risk concentration is higher, the phase can be finished earlier to address the treats

      Can be quite expensive
      The development process is precisely documented yet scalable to the changesThe risk control demands involvement of the highly-skilled professionals
      The scalability allows to make changes and add new functionality even at the relatively late stagesCan be ineffective for the small projects
      The earlier working prototype is done – sooner users can point out the flaws

      Big number of the intermediate stages requires excessive documentation

  12. What is Agile model?
    1. In the agile methodology after every development iteration, the customer is able to see the result and understand if he is satisfied with it or he is not. This is one of the advantages of the agile software development life cycle model. One of its disadvantages is that with the absence of defined requirements it is difficult to estimate the resources and development cost. Extreme programming is one of the practical use of the agile model. The basis of such model consists of short weekly meetings – Sprints which are the part of the Scrum approach.
    2. agile sdlc
      Corrections of functional requirements are implemented into the development process to provide the competitivenessDifficulties with measuring the final cost because of permanent changes
      Project is divided by short and transparent iterationsThe team should be highly professional and client-oriented
      Risks are minimized thanks to the flexible change processNew requirements may conflict with the existing architecture
      Fast release of the first product versionWith all the corrections and changes there is possibility that the project will exceed expected time
  • What is a job queue?
  • What is a ready queue?
  • What is a device queue?
  • What is a long term scheduler & short term schedulers?
  • What is context switching?
  • What is process synchronization?
  • What is critical section problem?
  • What is a semaphore?
  • What are deadlock prevention techniques?
  • Distributed Systems?
  • Define Demand Paging, Page fault interrupt, and Trashing?
  • What is starvation and aging?
  1. What is DBMS ?
    1. The database management system is a collection of programs that enables user to store, retrieve, update and delete information from a database.
  2. What is RDBMS ?
    1. Relational Database Management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. Data from relational database can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. Data from relational database can be accessed using an API , Structured Query Language (SQL).
  3. What is SQL ?
    1. Structured Query Language(SQL) is a language designed specifically for communicating with databases. SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard.
  4. What are the different type of SQL’s statements?
    1. This is one of the most frequently asked SQL Interview Questions for freshers. SQL statements are broadly classified into three. They are –
      1. DDL – Data Definition Language DDL is used to define the structure that holds the data. For example, Create, Alter, Drop and Truncate table.
      2. DML – Data Manipulation Language DML is used for manipulation of the data itself. Typical operations are Insert, Delete, Update and retrieving the data from the table. The Select statement is considered as a limited version of the DML, since it can’t change the data in the database. But it can perform operations on data retrieved from the DBMS, before the results are returned to the calling function.
      3. DCL – Data Control Language DCL is used to control the visibility of data like granting database access and set privileges to create tables, etc. Example – Grant, Revoke access permission to the user to access data in the database.
  5. What is a Record in a database?
    1. A record is the collection of values / fields of a specific entity: i.e. an Employee, Salary etc.
  6. What is a Table in a database?
    1. A table is a collection of records of a specific type. For example, employee table, salary table etc.
  7. What is a database transaction?
    1. Database transaction takes database from one consistent state to another. At the end of the transaction the system must be in the prior state if the transaction fails or the status of the system should reflect the successful completion if the transaction goes through.
  8. What are properties of a transaction?
    1. Properties of the transaction can be summarized as ACID Properties.
      1. Atomicity – A transaction consists of many steps. When all the steps in a transaction get completed, it will get reflected in DB or if any step fails, all the transactions are rolled back.
      2. Consistency – The database will move from one consistent state to another, if the transaction succeeds and remain in the original state, if the transaction fails.
      3. Isolation – Every transaction should operate as if it is the only transaction in the system.
      4. Durability – Once a transaction has completed successfully, the updated rows/records must be available for all other transactions on a permanent basis.
  9. What are the different type of normalization?
    1. In database design, we start with one single table, with all possible columns. A lot of redundant data would be present since it’s a single table. The process of removing the redundant data, by splitting up the table in a well defined fashion is called normalization.
      1. First Normal Form (1NF) A relation is said to be in first normal form if and only if all underlying domains contain atomic values only. After 1NF, we can still have redundant data.
      2. Second Normal Form (2NF) A relation is said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non key attribute is fully dependent on the primary key. After 2NF, we can still have redundant data.
      3. Third Normal Form (3NF) A relation is said to be in 3NF, if and only if it is in 2NF and every non key attribute is non-transitively dependent on the primary key.
  10. What is a primary key?
    1. A primary key is a column whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. Primary key values can never be reused. If a row is deleted from the table, its primary key may not be assigned to any new rows in the future. To define a field as primary key, following conditions had to be met :
      1. No two rows can have the same primary key value.
      2. Every row must have a primary key value.
      3. The primary key field cannot be null.
      4. Value in a primary key column can never be modified or updated, if any foreign key refers to that primary key.
  11. What is a Composite Key?
    1. A Composite primary key is a type of candidate key, which represents a set of columns whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. For example – if “Employee_ID” and “Employee Name” in a table is combined to uniquely identify a row its called a Composite Key.
  12. What is a Composite Primary Key?
    1. A Composite primary key is a set of columns whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. What it means is that, a table which contains composite primary key will be indexed based on the columns specified in the primary key. This key will be referred in Foreign Key tables. For example – if the combined effect of columns, “Employee_ID” and “Employee Name” in a table is required to uniquely identify a row, its called a Composite Primary Key. In this case, both the columns will be represented as primary key.
  13. What is a Foreign Key?
    1. When a “one” table’s primary key field is added to a related “many” table in order to create the common field which relates the two tables, it is called a foreign key in the “many” table. For example, the salary of an employee is stored in salary table. The relation is established via foreign key column “Employee_ID_Ref” which refers “Employee_ID” field in the Employee table.
  14. What is a Unique Key?
    1. Unique key is same as primary with the difference being the existence of null. Unique key field allows one value as NULL value.